1) A law or regulation that governs behaviors, actions, or operations.
→ Arnett's rule, → commutation rule,
→ Fleming's rule, → Hund's rule,
→ left-hand rule, → Maxwell's rule,
→ right-hand rule, → rigorous selection rule,
→ selection rule, and
→ Trouton's rule.
M.E. riule, reule, from O.Fr. riule, from L. regula "straight stick, bar, ruler," related to regere "to rule, straighten, guide;" cognate with Pers. râst "right, straight," razan "rule," as below.
Razan from Av. razan "rule, order," from rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" Soghdian rəšt "right," rây-, râyênitan "to arrange;" Mod.Pers. râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."
rule of decision
Fr.: régle de décision
rule of three
Fr.: règle de trois
Te method of finding the fourth term in a proportion when three terms are given.
Fr.: réseau à traits
A → diffraction grating with a series of grooves that have been ruled on a reflective surface with a diamond tool mounted on a ruling machine. Ruled gratings may have triangular or trapezoidal groove profiles, whereas → holographic gratings usually have sinusoidal groove profiles.
ruye-ye xatt sâxté
Fr.: surface réglée
A surface, such as a cylinder or cone, that can be generated by moving a straight line.
Ruled, p.p. of rule; → surface.
Ruyé, → surface; xatt sâxté "built, formed by a line," from xatt→ line; sâxté, p.p. of sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").
An interval or period during which something, as a machine, operates or continues operating. → observing run.
Run, noun from verb, from M.E. ronnen, alteration of rinnen, (from O.E. rinnan and O.N. rinna) and of rennen, from O.N. renna; akin to O.H.G. rinnan; Ger. rinnen "to flow, run;" Skt. rinati "he causes to flow," and probably to L. rivus "stream;" PIE base *rei- "to flow."
Dâv "a move, a turn (at play)," dâv zadan (kardan) "to make a move (at game)," variant dow (e.g. dow bé dast-e kasi oftâdan), maybe related to dow "run," from davidan, dav- "to run;" Mid.Pers. dawidan, daw- "to run;" cf. Skt. dhāv- "to walk, hurry, flow," dhāvati "flows, runs;" Gk. thoos "fast, quick;" O.E. deaw; E. dew; PIE base *dheu- "to flow."
Fr.: étoile en fuite
A massive, young, and hot star that is moving quickly through space. Runaways are probably propelled through space from a binary star when its companion has exploded as a supernova, or ejected from a stellar cluster by the dynamical interactions in the system.
Setâré, → star; gorizân present participle of goriz-, gorixtan "to escape; to flee, run away;" Mid.Pers. virextan; Proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik; Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off;" Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance"); Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan; O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").
The water or other liquids that drains or flows from the land into streams and rivers, eventually into seas.
Ravânâb, literally "flowing water," from ravân "flowing, running," pr.p. of raftan "to go, walk; to flow" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack" + âb, → water.
pâregi (#) , gosast (#)
From L. ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from p.p. of rumpere "to break."
jofteš-e Russell-Saunders, jafsari-ye ~
Fr.: couplage Russell-Saunders
A coupling scheme of → electron configuration, used mainly for the lighter atoms with → atomic number less than 30. In an atom when changes in energy states are produced by the action of two or more electrons, the value of the total angular momentum of these electrons results from the coupling between the total → orbital angular momenta of the electrons and the total → spin angular momenta of the electrons. In this scheme the orbital angular momenta and spin angular momenta of electrons are added separately to give the total angular momentum L = Σi li and the total electron spin angular momentum S = Σi si. These are then added to give J = L + S. Also called → LS coupling. See also → jj coupling.
After Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957) and Frederick Albert Saunders (1875-1963), American astronomers (1925, ApJ 61, 38); → coupling.
Fr.: théorème de Russell-Vogt
A uniqueness theorem involving the equations of state of stellar structure. → Vogt-Russell theorem.
Named after the German astronomer Heinrich Vogt (1890-1968) and the American astronomer Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957); → theorem.
Hydrated oxide of iron, mainly Fe2O3H2O, formed on the surface of iron when it is exposed to moisture and air.
O.E. rust, related to rudu "redness," from P.Gmc. *rusta- (cf. O.H.G., Ger. rost, M.Du. ro(e)st), from PIE base *reudh- "red" (cf. Lith. rustas "brownish," rudeti "to rust;" L. robigo, O.C.S. ruzda "rust").
Zang "rust," variants žang, zangâr, of unknown origin.
A hard, silver gray metal belonging to the → platinum group of metals; symbol: Ru. It is found directly above osmium in Group 8 of the periodic table. → Atomic number 44, → atomic weight 101.07, → melting point about 2,310°C, → boiling point about 3,900°C, → specific gravity 12.41 at 20°C.
From L. ruthenia "Russia," because it was first found by the Russian chemist Gottfried Wilhelm Osann in 1828, despite not being recognized as an element. In 1844 the Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus was able to isolate the ruthenium metal.
atom-e Rutherford (#)
Fr.: atome de Rutherford
A simple model assuming that the positive charge of the atom is not distributed uniformly throughout the atom (unlike the → Thomson atom), but is concentrated in a minute center or nucleus, and the negative charge is distributed over a sphere of radius comparable with the atomic radius.
After the British physicist and chesmist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), who put forward this model in 1911; Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908; → atom.
An artificially produced radioactive chemical element; symbol Rf. Atomic number 104; mass number of most stable isotope 261; melting point, boiling point, and specific gravity unknown. Rutherfordium was discovered in 1964 by a team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in Russia who named the element kurchatovium. The Russian scientists were unable to duplicate their results and therefore lost credit to a team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, who identified the element. The scientists in California were successful in isolating the element after irradiating 249Cf with 12C.
Named after the British physicist and chemist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), → Rutherford atom.
A unit of energy used in atomic physics, equal to about 13.6 electron-volts, the ionization potential of hydrogen.
In honor of the Swedish physicist Johannes Robert Rydberg (1854-1919), who did important contributions on spectroscopy, and in particular found a relatively simple expression relating the various lines in the spectra of chemical elements (1890).
pâyâ-ye Rydberg (#)
Fr.: constante de Rydberg
A fundamental constant of atomic physics appearing in the → Rydberg formula. The Rydberg constant for hydrogen is 109,739 cm-1.
Fr.: correction de Rydberg
A term inserted into a formula for the energy of a single electron in the outermost shell of an atom to take into account the failure of the inner electron shells to screen the nuclear charge completely.
Fr.: formule de Rydberg
A formula, used in atomic physics, which describes the wavelengths or frequencies of light in various series of related spectral lines, such as those emitted by hydrogen atoms.