An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 712
radioactive dating
  سن‌یابی ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
sen yâbi-ye partow-žirâ

Fr.: datation radioactive   

Determining the age of an object from the → radioactive decay of its constituting material. The technique consists of comparing the → abundance ratio of a → radioactive isotope to its → decay product. This will yield the number of half-lives that have occurred since the sample was formed. More specifically, if an object is made up of 50 % decay product then it has gone through 1 → half-life. 75% decay product equals 2 half-lives, 87.5% decay product equals 3 half-lives, 93.76% decay product equals 4 half-lives, and so on. For example, the decay product of → uranium-238 (238U) is → lead-206 (206Pb). The half-life of 238U is 4.5 billion years. Hence, if the sample has gone through two half-lives, it is 9 billion years old. See also: → radiocarbon dating.

radioactive; → dating.

radioactive decay
  تباهی ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
tabâhi-ye partow-žirâ

Fr.: désintégration radioactive   

Spontaneous emission by a nucleus of photons or particles.

radioactive; → decay.

radioactive isotope
  ایزوتوپ ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
izotop-e partow-žirâ

Fr.: isotope radioactif   

A → nuclide that is radioactive.

radioactive; → isotope.

radioactive nuclide
  هسته‌وار ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
hastevâr-e partowžirâ

Fr.: nucléide radioactif   

A → nuclide that disintegrates by emitting radiation and transforms into another nuclide. Same as → radionuclide.

radioactive; → nuclide.

radioactive waste
  آخال ِ پرتو-ژیرا   
âxâl-e partow-žirâ

Fr.: déchets radioactifs   

The radioactive by-products from the operation of a nuclear reactor or from the reprocessing of depleted nuclear fuel. Also known as nuclear waste.

radioactive; → waste.

  پرتو-ژیرایی، پرتو-ژیرندگی   
partow-žirâyi, partow-žirandegi

Fr.: radioactivité   

The spontaneous disintegration of certain atomic nuclei, which is accompanied by the emission of either α- or β- particles and/or a γ rays.

radio; → activity.


Fr.: radiocarbone   

A → radioactive → isotope of → carbon, especially → carbon-14.

radio; → carbon

radiocarbon dating
  سن‌یابی ِ پرتو-کربونی   
senn yâbi-ye partow-karboni

Fr.: datation au radiocarbone   

A radioactive dating technique, applied to organic materials, which measures the content of the radioactive isotope of carbon 14C. The radioactive carbon isotopes created by the impact of cosmic rays with the nitrogen atoms of the atmosphere find their way, via carbon dioxide and photosynthesis, into living material. When an organic material dies it ceases to acquire further 14C atoms, and its 14C fraction declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of 14C. Comparing the remaining 14C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric 14C allows the age of the sample to be estimated.

radiocarbon; → dating.

partow bonpâr

Fr.: radioélément   

An element, such as uranium, whose isotopes are all radioactive.

radio; → element.

partow-negâri (#)

Fr.: radiographie   

The process of producing an image on a sensitive surface by radiation such as X-rays or gamma rays passing through an object.

radio + → -graphy.


Fr.: radioisotope   

A synonym for radionuclide.

radio; → isotope.

partowšenâsi (#)

Fr.: radiologie   

The study and use of radiation and radioactive substances for the treatment of diseases.

radio; + → -logy.


Fr.: radiolyse   

The dissociation of molecules by radiation, for example in a reactor core, when the water used for cooling breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen.

From → radio + -lysis a combining form denoting "breaking down, loosening, decomposition," → analysis.

tâbeš-sanj (#)

Fr.: radiomètre   

An instrument that measures the intensity of radiant energy.

radio; → -meter.

radiometric dating
  سن‌یابی ِ تابش‌سنجیک، ~ تابش‌سنجی   
senn yâbi-ye tâbeš-sanjik, ~ tâbeš-sanji

Fr.: datation radiométrique   

A dating method that uses measurements of certain radioactive isotopes to calculate the ages in years (absolute age) of rocks and minerals.

radiometer; → dating.

tâbeš- sanji (#)

Fr.: radiométrie   

The detection and measurement of radiant energy, either as separate wavelengths or integrated over a broad wavelength band, and the interaction of radiation with matter in such ways as absorption, reflection, and emission.

radio + → -metry.

Tâbeš-sanji, from tâbeš, →radiation, + -sanj-metry.


Fr.: radionucléide   

A radioactive → nuclide.

radio + → nuclide.

râdio gomâné

Fr.: sonde radio   

A meteorological instrument that is carried aloft by a balloon to measure and send back information on atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity via radio to a ground receiving system.

radio + sonde, from Fr. sonde "sounding line."

radio; gomâné "a probe, a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).

râdiom (#)

Fr.: radium   

A radioactive metallic chemical element; symbol Ra. Atomic number 88; atomic weight 226.0254; melting point 700°C; boiling point 1,140°C. Discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska Curie in an ore of pitchblende. In 1911 Curie and André Debierne successfully isolated radium by electrolysis.

N.L., from L. rad(ius)" ray, beam" → radius + -ium a noun suffix.

šo'â' (#)

Fr.: rayon   

Of a circle, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the circumference.
Of a sphere, any straight line segment extending from the center to a point on the surface.
Of a regular polygon, the radius of the circle circumscribed about the polygon.

From L. radius "staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light," of unknown origin.

Šo'â', loan from Ar.

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