An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 584

Fr.: traceur, marqueur   

A → substance, especially a → radioactive isotope, used in experiments so that its movements through a biological, chemical, or physical system can be → monitored in order to study the → system.

trace, → -or.

nây (#)

Fr.: trachée   

The tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe (

M.E. trache, from M.L. trachea, from L.L. trachia, from Gk. trakheia, in trakheia arteria "windpipe."

Nây, variants nay, ney, nâl "pipe, tube, reed, cane, windpipe;" Mid.Pers. nây "tube, reed, flute, clarion;" cf. Skt. nada-, nādha-, nala- "a hollow stalk, tube, pipe."

  ۱) تر؛ ۲) تر گرفتن   
1) tor; 2) tor gereftan

Fr.: 1) trace, piste, trajet; 2) suivre la trace de   

1a) Evidence, as a mark or a series of marks, that something has passed.
1b) A path made or beaten by or as if by the feet of people or animals; trail (
1c) A line of motion, a course followed, such as → Hayashi track. See also: → evolutionary track, → Henyey track, → white dwarf cooling track, → tracking, → tracking accuracy.
2) To follow or pursue the track, traces, or footprints of.

M.E. trak, from M.Fr. trac, from O.Fr. trac "track of horses, trace" (mid-15c.), possibly from a Germanic source (compare M.L.G. treck, Du. trek "drawing, pulling).

Tor, from Lori, Laki, Fini, Bandar-Abâsi tor "track, trace, mark;" maybe ultimately from Proto-Ir. *tar- "to cross over;" cf. Av. tar- "to cross over;" Mid.Pers. (+*ui-) widur-, widôr- "to pass (beyond, over); Pers. gozar; Baluci tar(r)- "to walk;" Yaghnobi tir-, ter- "to go, leave;" → trans-.
Tor gereftan, with gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").


Fr.: poursuite   

The facility that allows a telescope to follow a celestial object during in its westward motion in the sky.

Verbal noun from → track.

tracking accuracy
  رشمندی ِ ترگیری   
rašmandi-ye torgiri

Fr.: précision de poursuite   

The accuracy with which a → telescope tracks a target.

tracking; → accuracy

tarâdâd (#)

Fr.: tradition   

An inherited or common body of beliefs or practices belonging to a particular people, family, or institution over a relatively long period. Also their transmission over time.

M.E. tradicion, from  O.Fr. tradicion, from L. traditionem "delivery, surrender, a handing down," from traditus, p.p. of tradere "to deliver, hand over," from → trans- "over" (time) + dare  "to give," → datum.

Tarâdâd, from tarâ- "over time," → trans-, + dâd past stem of dâdan "to give," → datum.

radd (#)

Fr.: traînée   

The marks, signs, smells, etc., that are left behind by someone or something and that can often be followed (Webster). → star trail.

M.E. trailen "to draw or drag in the rear," from O.Fr. trailler "to tow," ultimately from L. tragula "dragnet," probably related to trahere "to pull."

Radd, variant of raj, râž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight," related to râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" → system.

  قطار، ترن   
qatâr (#), teran (#)

Fr.: train   

1) A series or sequence of objects or events.
2) A line of coaches or wagons coupled together and drawn by a railway locomotive.

M.E., from O.Fr. train "tracks, path, trail; act of dragging," from trainer "to pull, drag, draw," from V.L. *traginare, from *tragere "to pull," back-formation from tractus, p.p. of L. trahere "to pull, draw."

Qatâr "a row of camels," loan from Ar.; teran, loan from Fr., as above.


Fr.: trajectoire   

Physics: The line or curve described by an object moving through space.
Math.: A curve or surface that cuts all of a given family of curves or surfaces at the same angle.

From Mod.L. trajectoria, from feminine of trajectorius "of or pertaining to throwing across," from L. trajectus "thrown over or across," p.p. of trajicere "throw across," from L. → trans- "across" + icere, combining form of jacere "to throw," → eject.

Tarâyešâné, from tarâ- "across," → trans-, + -y- epenthetic + ešân, present stem of ešândan, → eject, + relation suffix .

tarâ- (#)

Fr.: trans-   

Prefix meaning "across, beyond, through;" variant tra-; used with both space (point to point, shape to shape) and time (time to time, past to present, present to past) concepts.
See also:
tradition, → transauroral, → transcendental, → transdisciplinary, → transduce, → transfer, → transform, → transient, → transistor, → transit, → transition, → translate, → translucent, → translunar, → transmission, → transmit, → transmutate, → trans-Neptunian, → transparent, → transponder, → transport, → transpose, → transversal, → transverse, → transuranium.

From L. trans-, from preposition trans "across, over, beyond," cognate with Pers. tarâ- as below; cf. O.E. þurh, E. through; O.S. thuru; M.Du. dore, Du. door; O.H.G. thuruh, Ger. durch; Goth. þairh "through;" O.Ir. tre, Welsh tra "through;" PIE base *ter- "to cross."

Tarâ-, from Mid.Pers. tar (preposition) "through, across, over, beyond; over time;" tarmenidan "to abuse, despise," tarmenišn "conceited, disdainful;" O.Pers. tara "over, beyond, across;" Av. tarô, tarə "over, across, beyond," from O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over," O.Pers. vi-tar- "to go across," Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Mod.Pers. gozar, gozaštan "to pass, cross," Av. tara-δāta- "placed beyond," tarô-yāra- "outlasting the years" (over time), vī-tərəta- "taken away, isolated;" O.Pers. tara-draya- "overseas;" Sogdian tr- "to go;" cf. L. trans-, as above; Skt. tar- "to pass (through), overcome," tárati "crosses, passes," tirás "through, across, beyond." The first element in the Mod.Pers. tarâvoš "exuding, trickling, oozing" is probably this prefix, → permeability. Another case may be tarzafân, tarzabân "interpreter, translator," with zafân, zabân, → language.

trans-Neptunian object (TNO)
  بر‌آخت ِ ترا-نپتونی   
barâxt-e tarâ-Nneptuni

Fr.: objet trans-neptunien   

A member of a class of objects in orbit around the Sun at a larger distance than the distance between Neptune and the Sun. This includes several → dwarf planets, such as → Eris, → Pluto, and many small solar system bodies.

trans-; → Neptune; → object.

transauroral line
  خط ِ ترا-اوشه‌ای   
xatt-e tarâ-uše-yi

Fr.: raie transaurorale   

A forbidden line emitted by interstellar ionized gas by several atomic species (O, O+, O++, N+, S++, etc.) corresponding to the transition from the electronic state 1S to 3P. Examples are the ultraviolet line of the doubly ionized oxygen [O III] at 2321 A and [N II] 3063 A. → auroral line; → forbidden line; → nebular line.

trans-; → auroral line.

tarâfarâzandé (#)

Fr.: transcendant   

1) General: Surpassing or superior.
2) Math.: → transcendental function, → transcendental number.

From transcendentalis, from transcendere "to climb over or beyond, surmount," from → trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb" + -alis, → -al.

Tarâfarâzandé, from tarâ- "beyond, over," → trans-, + farâzandé agent noun of farâzandan "to raise, erect, exalt," from farâz "above, up, upon, on the top, aloft," from Mid.Pers. farâz, farâc "forward, prominent, distinguished;" Av. frānk- (adj.) "turned toward the front," fraca (adv.) "forward, forth," fraš (adv.) "forward, forth; before;" Proto-Iranian *frānk-.

transcendental function
  کریای ِ ترا-فرازنده   
karyâ-ye tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: fonction transcendante   

A function which is not → algebraic. For example y = cosx, y = 10xx.

transcendental; → function.

transcendental logic
  گوییک ِ ترافرازنده   
guyik-e tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: logique transcendantale   

In Kantian epistemology, a pure logic which contains solely the rules of the pure thought of an object, excluding any mode of knowledge with empirical content. Whereas general logic is not concerned with the origin of our cognitions, transcendental logic would contain rules for the use of → a priori cognitions.

transcendental; → logic.

transcendental number
  عدد ِ ترا-فرازنده   
adad-e tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: nombre transcendant   

A → real number that is not a → root of any → algebraic equation with → rational → coefficients. Every transcendental number is → irrational. Examples of transcendental numbers are π = 3.1415926... and e = 2.7182818...

transcendental; → number.

  ترا-هاوشانی، ترا-هاوشان‌مندی   
tarâ-hâvešâni, tarâ-hâvešânmand

Fr.: transdisciplinaire   

Of a comprehensive framework that transcends the partial scope of disciplinary worldviews through an overarching synthesis, such as general systems, feminist theory, and sustainability. The term also connotes a new structure of unity informed by the worldview of complexity in science and a new mode of knowledge production that draws on expertise from a wider range of organizations, and collaborations with stakeholders in society. See also → interdisciplinary and → multidisciplinary (Thompson Klein, J. 2010, Creating Interdisciplinary Campus Culture, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.).

trans-; → disciplinary.



To convert (energy) from one form into another.

From L. transducere "lead across, transfer," from → trans- "across" + ducere "to lead."

Tarâhâxtan, from tarâ-, → trans-, + hâxtan, hâzidan, from Mid.Pers. "to lead, guide, persuade," Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join," cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai "to follow,", L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw-.


Fr.: transducteur   

A device that converts one type of energy to another for various purposes, such as a microphone that converts acoustic energy into electrical impulses or a photodetector that converts modulated light waves to electrical currents.

Agent noun of → transduce.

  ۱) تراوژ؛ ۲) تراوژیدن   
1) tarâvaž 2) tarâvažidan

Fr.: 1) transfert; 2) transférer   

1) The conveying of something or energy from one place or position to another.
charge-transfer device; → energy transfer; → heat transfer; → optical transfer function; → radiative transfer; → radiative transfer equation.
2a) To convey or pass from one place to another.
2b) To copy information or images from one place or object to another.

M.E. transferren (v.), from L. transferre "to carry over, transfer, translate," from → trans- "across" + ferre "to carry;" cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, transport;" Mid.Pers. burdan; O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive);" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry."

Tarâvaž, from tarâ-, → trans- "across," + važ, variant vâz (in parvâz), Av. vaz- "to draw, guide; bring; possess; fly; float," vazaiti "guides, leads" (cf. Skt. vah- "to carry, drive, convey," vahati "carries," pravaha- "bearing along, carrying," pravāha- "running water, stream, river;" L. vehere "to carry;" O.E. wegan "to carry;" O.N. vegr; O.H.G. weg "way," wegan "to move," wagan "cart;" M.Du. wagen "wagon;" PIE base *wegh- "to drive;" see also → flight).

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