An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 549
Taylor-Goldstein equation
  هموگش ِ تیلر-گلدشتاین   
hamugeš-e Taylor-Goldstein

Fr.: équation de Taylor-Goldstein   

Fluid mechanics: A second order differential equation that governs the vertical structure of a perturbation in a stratified parallel flow.

Named after G. I. Taylor (Effect of variation in density on the stability of superposed streams of fluid, 1931, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 132, 499), → Taylor number, and S. Goldstein (On the stability of superposed streams of fluids of different densities, 1931, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 132, 524); → equation.

Taylor-Proudman theorem
  فربین ِ تیلر-پراؤدمن   
farbin-e Taylor-Proudman

Fr.: théorème de Taylor-Proudman   

In a rapidly rotating fluid, the fluid velocity is constant along any line parallel to the axis of rotation.

Taylor number; Joseph Proudman (1888-1975), British mathematician and oceanographer.

teach
  آموختن   
âmuxtan (#)

Fr.: enseigner   

To impart knowledge or skill to; give instruction to.

M.E. techen, O.E. tæcan; cf. O.H.G. zihan, Ger. zeihen "to accuse," Goth. ga-teihan "to announce;" cognate with Pers. dis, → form.

Âmuxtan, âmuz- "to teach; learn;" Mid.Pers. hammoxtan, hammoz- "to teach; learn;" cf. Sogd. muck "teacher;" Choresmian mxs "to learn," mwcy "to teach, instruct;" Proto-Iranian *mauc- "to learn; teach."

technetium
  تکنتیوم   
teknetium (#)

Fr.: technétium   

A radioactive chemical element which does not exist naturally on Earth; symbol Tc. Atomic number 43; mass number of most stable isotope 98; melting point 2,200°C; boiling point 4,877°C. Technetium is synthesised via the → s-process in deep layers of → asymptotic giant branch stars.

From the Gk. technetos "artificial," initially called masurium.

technique
  تشنیک، فن   
tašnik, fann

Fr.: technique   

The body of specialized procedures and methods used in any specific field, especially in an area of applied science.

From Fr. technique "formal practical details in artistic expression," noun use of adj. technique "of art, technical," from Gk. tekhnikos, from tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" cognate with Pers. tarâš- "to cut, hew; scape; shave," tišé "axe," as below.

Tašnik, related to Pers. tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" from Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "axe;" tarâšidan "to shave"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to fom by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion."
Fann or fan, from Pers. fan "way, manner, mode, art, science," related to Mod/Mid.Pers. pand "path, advice, counsel;" Khotanese pande "road, path;" Ossetic fœndœg "path, road;" O.Pers. paθi- "path, way;" Av. paθ- "path, way," variants paθi-, paθā-, pantay-; cf. Skt. pánthā- "road, path, course;" Gk. patos "path, way," pontos "sea;" L. pons "bridge, path;" P.Gmc. *finthanan "to find;" E. find; PIE base *pent- "to go, to tread."

technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی، فناوری   
tašnik-šenâsi (#), fanâvari (#)

Fr.: technologie   

The use of scientific knowledge for the creation and development of devices, machines, and techniques to achieve a commercial, industrial, or scientific objective.

From Gk. tekhnologia "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique," originally referring to grammar, from tekhno-, from tekhne, → technique, + → -logy.

tectonics
  سازانیک   
sâzânik

Fr.: tectonique   

The science or art of assembling, shaping, or ornamenting materials in construction; the constructive arts in general. → plate tectonics

L.L. tectonicus, from Gk. tektonikos "pertaining to building," from tekton (genitive tektonos) "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Sâzânik, from sâzân pr.p. of sâz-, sâxtan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -ik, → -ics.

Teide 1
  تایده-۱   
Teide 1

Fr.: Teide 1   

The first genuine → brown dwarf, discovered in 1995. It is located in the → Pleiades open cluster at approximately 400 → light-years. Teide 1 is a faint object of apparent magnitude I = 19.03, with a late → M dwarf spectral type (M8), corresponding to 55±15 → Jupiter masses (Rebolo et al. 1995, Nature 377, 129).

Named for Observatorio del Teide, Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), where this object was first detected.

tektite
  تکتیت   
tektit (#)

Fr.: tektite   

Small glassy bodies whose chemical composition is unrelated to the geological formation in which they are found. They are found mostly in Australia, Java, Philippines and Indochina. Tektites are now thought to have been produced by the impact of meteorites on the earth's surface.

From Gk. tekt(os) "molten" + -ite a suffix used in the name of minerals and fossils.

tele-
  دور-   
dur- (#)

Fr.: télé-   

A combining form meaning "distant."

From Gk. tele-, combining form of tele "far off, afar, at or to a distance," related to teleos "end, goal, result, perfection."

Dur- "far," from Mid.Pers. dūr "far, distant, remote;" O.Pers. dūra- "far (in time or space)," dūraiy "afar, far away, far and wide;" Av. dūra-, dūirē "far," from dav- "to move away;" cf. Skt. dūrá- "far; distance (in space and time);" PIE base *deu- "to move forward, pass;" cf. Gk. den "for a long time," deros "lasting long."

telemetry
  دورسنجی   
dursanji (#)

Fr.: télémétrie   

The science and technology of measurement and transmission of data by optical, acoustical, or radioelectric means from remote sources, as from space vehicles, to receiving stations for recording and analysis.

tele- + → -metry.

telescope
  دوربین، تلسکوپ   
durbin (#), teleskop (#)

Fr.: télescope   

An instrument used to collect and amplify light or other energy. → Refracting telescopes gather light by means of a lens, → reflecting telescopes by means of a mirror. → Radiotelescopes gather radio energy by using an antenna. Telescopes have also been built that can gather X rays, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. → grazing incidence telescope.

From It. telescopio (used by Galileo, 1611), and Mod.L. telescopium (used by Kepler, 1613), both from Gk. teleskopos "far-seeing," from → tele- "far" + -skopos "seeing," from skopein "to watch, look, behold;" → -scope.

Durbin, from dur-, → tele-, + -bin "to see; seer," → -scope.

telescope dome
  گنبد ِ دوربین، ~ ِ تلسکوپ   
gonbad-e durbin (#), ~ teleskop (#)

Fr.: coupole de télescope   

A covering, usually hemispherical, that is rotatable about a central axis. There is a slit opening along one side wide enough to allow a telescope to be directed at any vertical angle up to 90°.

telescope; → dome.

telescope pointing accuracy
  رشمندی ِ آماجش ِ دوربین، ~ ~ تلسکوپ   
rašmandi-ye âmâješ-e durbin, ~ ~ teleskvp

Fr.: précision du pointage de télescope   

The accuracy with which a telescope can be pointed to a particular coordinate in the sky.

telescope; → pointing; accuracy.

Telescopium
  تلسکوپ   
Teleskop (#)

Fr.: Télescope   

The Telescope. An inconspicuous constellation situated in the southern hemisphere, at 19h right ascension, 50° south declination. Abbreviation: Tel; genitive: Telescopii.

Telescopium was named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762); → telescope.

Telesto
  تلستو   
Telesto (#)

Fr.: Telesto   

The tenth of Saturn's known satellites. It is irregularly-shaped and has a diameter of 29 x 22 x 20 km. Telesto orbits Saturn at a distance of 294,660 km. Telesto is co-orbital with Tethys, residing in Tethys' leading Lagrangian point (L4). The images taken by the Cassini probe during its distant flyby on October 11, 2005 show that its surface is surprisingly smooth, devoid of small impact craters. Telesto was discovered by B. Smith, H. Reitsema, S. Larson, J. Fountain in 1980 from ground-based observations.

In Gk. mythology Telesto was a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys.

telluric
  زمینی   
zamini (#)

Fr.: tellurique   

1) Pertaining to the Earth, as a planet, or the earth or soil.
2) Derived from or containing → tellurium.

From L. tellur-, from tellus "earth" + → -ic.

Zamini, of or pertaining to zamin, → earth.

telluric band
  باند ِ جوّی   
bând-e javvi

Fr.: bande tellurique   

A band seen in the spectra of celestial objects, which is due to absorption by gases such as oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere

telluric; → band.

tellurium
  تلوریوم   
teluriom (#)

Fr.: tellure   

A brittle metallic element usually found in combination with → gold and other → metals, used to → alloy stainless → steel and → lead, and, as bismuth telluride, in thermoelectric devices; symbol Te. → Atomic number 52; → atomic weight 127.60; → melting point 450°C; → boiling point 990°C; → specific gravity 6.24 at 20°C. It was discovered by the Roumanian mine director Franz Joseph Muller von Reichenstein in 1782 and overlooked for sixteen years until it was first isolated by German chemist Martin-Heinrich Klaproth in 1798. The Hungarian chemist Paul Kitaibel independently discovered tellurium in 1789, prior to Klaproth's work but after von Reichenstein.

From L. tellur-, from tellus "earth" + -ium a L. suffix occurring in the name of some chemical elements.

Tempel-Tuttle
  تمپل-تاتل   
Tempel-Tuttle

Fr.: Tempel-Tuttle   

A → periodic comet that is the progenitor of the → Leonids meteor shower. It has a period of 33 years, a → perihelion of 0.982 → astronomical units, an → eccentricity of 0.904, and an → inclination of 162.7°. It was first discovered in 1865 though its past appearances have been traced back to 1366. Tempel-Tuttle is estimated to have a nucleus of radius 1.8 km and a mass of 1.2 × 1013 kg. Also designated 55P/Tempel-Tuttle.

Named after the German astronomer Ernst Wilhelm Tempel (1821-1889) and the American astronomer Horace Parnell Tuttle (1837-1923), who independently discovered the comet on December 19, 1865 and January 6, 1866 respectively.

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