Fr.: mouvement thermique
The random motions and collisions of molecules, atoms, electrons, or other subatomic particles constituting an object at all temperatures above → absolute zero. The thermal motion of particles rises with the temperature of those particles and is governed by the laws of → thermodynamics. The most convincing experimental proof of thermal motion → Brownian motion.
notron-e garmâ-yi (#)
Fr.: neutron thermique
A neutron of very slow speed and consequently of low energy. The energy of thermal neutrons is of the same order as the → thermal energy of the atoms and molecules of the substance through which they are passing.
nufe-ye garmâyi (#)
Fr.: bruit thermique
Electric noise signals that are produced by the random thermal motion of charges in circuit.
fešâr-e garmâyi (#)
Fr.: pression thermale
The ordinary pressure in a gas that is due to motions of particles and can be attributed to the object's → temperature.
tape-ye garmâyi, tapeš-e ~
Fr.: pulsation thermique
Repeated instabilities of the He burning shell which ignites in sudden burst during the final phases of the → AGB evolution.
tâbeš-e garmâyi (#)
Fr.: rayonnement thermique
The energy radiated from an object in the form of → electromagnetic waves as a result of its → temperature. Thermal radiation ranges in → wavelength from the longest → infrared radiation through the → visible light spectrum to the shortest → ultraviolet rays. In opposition, → non-thermal radiation is caused by energetic particles.
toš-e garmâyi, šok-e ~
Fr.: choc thermique
Stresses induced in a material because of rapid temperature change or a → thermal gradient .
Fr.: pointe thermale
Fr.: support thermique
In star formation models, the gas pressure that counters the collapsing pull of gravity.
1) The process by which a system reaches → thermal equilibrium.
Thermalization results from energy exchange between the
components constituting the system and their exchange with the outside medium.
In a gas at a given temperature, molecules move with different velocities.
The gas temperature corresponds to the mean velocity of the molecules, but individual
molecules may deviate largely from the mean velocity. Some move very fast others
slowly and change velocity upon collisions. Collisions reduce the energy of
fast moving molecules and increase that of slow ones.
In the process of thermalization
→ matter and → radiation
are in constant interaction such that their → temperatures
The process goes on until energy distribution reaches
The system is said to be → thermalized.
Verbal noun of → thermalize.
Fr.: raie thermalisée
A collisionally excited spectral line formed in high density condition well above the → critical density. At such densities the → excitation temperature is at (or very near) the → kinetic temperature of the gas. At low densities, below the critical density, the excitation temperature will be only slightly above the radiation temperature and the emission line will be practically invisible.
An electron that has been emitted from a heated body such as the hot cathode of an electron tube.
Fr.: émission thermionique
Electrons gaining enough thermal energy to escape spontaneously from the cathode or dynodes and mimic photoelectrons.
A combining form meaning "heat, hot," used in the formation of compound words. Also therm- before a vowel.
From Gk. therme "heat," thermos "hot;" cf. L. fornax "oven, kiln," related to fornus, furnus "oven," and to formus "warm;" cognate with Pers. garm "warm," as below; P.Gmc. *warmaz (O.E. wearm; E. warm; O.H.G., Ger. warm).
Garmâ "heat, warmth," from Mid.Pers. garmâg; O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" cognate with Gk. therme, thermos, as above; PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm- "warm."
A layer in a large body of water, such as a lake, in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Electrical circuit consisting of two dissimilar metals, in which an electromotive force is produced when the two junctions are at different temperatures.
Of or pertaining to → thermodynamics.
Fr.: équilibre thermodynamique
The condition of a → thermodynamic system in which the available → energy is distributed uniformly among all the possible forms of energy. Furthermore, all → thermodynamic process es must be exactly balanced by their reverse processes. For example, inside a star there will be as many → ionizations of helium per second as there are → recombinations of free electrons and helium ions. Se also → local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE).
Fr.: chemin thermodynamique