manšur-e Wollaston (#)
Fr.: prisme de Wollaston
An optical device for producing and analyzing polarized light. It divides incoming unpolarized light into two orthogonal, linearly polarized beams. It consists of two prisms of either quartz or calcite cemented together.
After the English scientist William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828); → prism.
Fr.: théorème de Woltjer
In magnetohydrodynamics, in the limit of zero resistivity, the magnetic field B satisfies the induction equation ∂B/∂t = ∇ x (v x B), then for a plasma confined by a perfectly conducting boundary, the → magnetic helicity is conserved. If the normal field is fixed on the boundary, the minimum-energy state is the linear → force-free magnetic field that conserves the total → magnetic helicity.
The female human being.
M.E. womman, wimman, O.E. wifman, from wif "female" + man "human being."
Zan "woman, wife;" Mid.Pers. zan "woman, wife;" kaniz "maid, virgin, girl;" Av. jəni- "woman, wife;" cf. Skt. jáni- "woman, wife;" Gk. gyne "woman, wife;" O.E. cwen "queen, woman, wife" (E. queen; Arm. kin "woman;" PIE base *gwenh- "woman, wife."
A unit of language, consisting of one or more sounds or their written representation, that communicates a meaning. → stopword
M.E., from O.E. word; cf. Du. woord, O.H.G., Ger. wort, Goth. waurd; related to verb, from L. verbum "verb;" from PIE *wer- "to speak, say."
Vâžé "word;" Mid.Pers. vâc, vâcak "word, speech;" related to âva "voice, sound," âvâz "voice, sound, song," bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng); Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."
If a force F acting on a body moves its point of application through a distance r, the work is defined by the product F.r.cosθ, where θ is the angle between the line of action of the force and the displacement. Work can be positive, negative, or zero.
M.E.; O.E. weorc, worc "something done, action, military fortification," from P.Gmc. *werkan (cf. O.S., O.Fris., Du. werk, O.N. verk, O.H.G. werah, Ger. Werk), from PIE base *werg- "to work;" cognate with Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, practise," → erg.
Kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr; Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."
Fr.: travail d'extraction
The least amount of energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a solid, to a point just outside the solid where the electron has zero kinetic energy. See also → photoelectric effect.
Fr.: principe travail-énergie
The → work of the resultant force exerted on a particle equals the change in kinetic energy of the particle.
Fr.: groupe de travail
A group of people working together to achieve a stated goal.
Fr.: zone d'interaction
The double shock structure formed in any two fluids that collide supersonically. A working surface consists of two → shocks, a → bow shock where the ambient material is shocked and accelerated, and a jet shock or → Mach disk, where the → jet material is decelerated. It is common to find multiple working surfaces along the axis of an → Herbig-Haro jet, testifying to recurrent eruptions of the underlying source.
1) A place where manual work is done, especially manufacturing or repairing.
→ work + shop M.E. shoppe, O.E. sceoppa; cf. O.H.G. scopf "porch," Ger. Schuppen "a shed").
Kârgâh "workshop," from kâr, → work, + gâh "place; time" (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come").
1) The Earth with its inhabitants. Compare → cosmos and
M.E.; O.E. woruld, weorold; cf. O.S. werold, O.Fris. warld, Du. wereld, O.N. verold, O.H.G. weralt, Ger. Welt.
Jahân, variants keyhân, geyhân "world," giti "world, material world, time;" Mid.Pers. gêhân "world," gêtig "the material world; wordly," Manichean Mid.Pers. gyh "world," gyh'n "worlds;" Av. gaēθā- "being, world, matter, mankind" (O.Pers. gaiθā- "livestock"), gaya- "life, manner of living," root gay- "to live" (present tense jiva-), cognate with Skt. jīv- "to live," jīva- "alive, living;" Gk. bios "life," L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" PIE base *gwei- "to live" (cf. O.E. cwic "alive;" O.C.S. zivo "to live;" Lith. gyvas "living, alive;" O.Ir. bethu "life," bith "age, life, world;" Welsh byd "world"). The Pers. words zistan "to live," zendé "alive," zendegi "life," and jân "vital spirit, soul; mind" belong to this family.
xatt-e jahân, jahân-xatt (#)
Fr.: ligne d'univers
In relativity, the path traced out in four-dimensional → space-time that represents a continuous sequence of events relating to a given particle. A point on a world line is called an → event. Any straight world line corresponds to an → inertial motion. Curved world lines represent → accelerated motion. A world line that curves corresponds to an accelerated observer. World lines are shown on space-time diagrams.
kerm-surâx, surâx-e kerm
Fr.: trou de ver
A hypothetical topological feature, based on → general relativity, that connects two different points like a "tunnel" in → space-time. The most common concept of a wormhole is an → Einstein-Rosen bridge. A trip through the wormhole could take much less time than a journey between the same starting and ending points in normal space. Wormholes have various types, intra-universe wormholes (connecting two distant regions of our Universe with each other) and inter-universe wormholes (that connect our Universe with another universe).
The term was coined by the Princeton physicist John Wheeler (1911-2008), from worm, M.E., O.E. wurm "serpent, dragon;" cf. O.S., O.H.G., Ger. wurm, O.Fris., Du. worm, Goth. waurms "serpent, worm;" akin to Pers. kerm "worm," as below; → hole.
Kerm "worm;" Mid.Pers. kirm "worm, snake, dragon;" cf. Skt. krmi- "worm, maggot;" O.Ir. cruim "worm;" Lith. kirmis "worm;" L. vermis "worm;" E. worm, as above; surâx, → hole.
A low, sinuous tectonic ridge on a planetary surface that resembles a wrinkle in skin or cloth. These features were first detected on the Moon, but they have also been identified on other planetary bodies such as Mars, Mercury, and Venus.
M.E., back formation from wrinkled, from O.E. gewrinclod "wrinkled, crooked," p.p. of gewrinclian "to wind, crease," from perfective prefix ge- + -wrinclian "to wind;" → ridge
Ruk, → ridge; corukdâr, from coruk "wrinkle" + dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").
To trace or form (letters, words, or other symbols) on a surface, typically paper, with a pen, pencil, or other similar instrument.
M.E. writen, O.E. writan "to score, outline, draw," later "to set down in writing;" cf. O.Frisian writa "to write," O.Saxon writan "to tear, scratch, write," O.Norse rita "write, scratch," O.H.G. rizan "to write, scratch, tear," Ger. reissen "to tear, pull, sketch, draw."
Neveštan, nevis- "to write," variants Kurd. (Sor.) nus, nusen, Lori nisane "to write," Kurd. (Kurm.) âvîtin, âvêntin, (Sor.) havîštin, hâvîtin "to compose (a song), to change (color);" Mid.Pers. (+ → ni-) nibištan, nebês- "to write," pēsīdan "to adorn;" O.Pers. pais- "to cut, adorn, engrave;" Av. paēs- "to paint, adorn," paēsa- "adornment;" cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled."
1) Not in accordance with what is morally right or good: a wrong deed.
M.E. wrong, wrang, O.E. wrang "twisted, crooked," from O.N. rangr "crooked, wry, wrong;" cf. Dan. vrang "crooked, wrong," Du. wrang "sour, bitter."
The → determinant of order n associated with a set of n functions, in which the first row consists of the functions, the second row consists of the first → derivatives of the functions, the third row consists of their second derivatives, and so on. For example, If y1 and y2 are functions of x, the determinant W(y1,y2) = y1 . y2' - y1' . y2 is called the Wronskian of the given function.
Named after the Polish mathematician Józef Hoene-Wroński (1776-1853).
Fr.: WZ Sagittae