The Charioteer. A conspicuous northern constellation lying midway between → Perseus and → Ursa Major and in a region crossed by the → Milky Way. The brightest star is → Capella. Auriga is the site of the Galactic → anticenter. Abbreviation: Aur; genitive form: Aurigae.
L. auriga "a charioteer, driver," from aureæ "bridle of a horse" + agere "set in motion, drive, lead."
Arrâberân "charioteer," from arrâbé "chariot, cart"
+ rân "driver," from rândan "to drive."
Arrâbé probably from *arâba, from *râba,
from *râda, compare with Av. ratha- "chariot," akin to
Skt. rathah "car, chariot," L. rota "wheel,"
rotare "revolve, roll,"
Lith. ratas "wheel,"
O.H.G. rad, Ger. Rad, Du. rad,
O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll."
Capella (α Aurigae)
Bozbân (#), Ayyuq (#)
The sixth brightest star in the sky, Capella lies in the Northern Hemisphere → constellation → Auriga. Also known as HD 34029 = HR 1708 = HIP 24608. Capella lies about 42 → light-years away (13.159 ± 0.015 → parsecs). Its → apparent visual magnitude is V = 0.07. A → spectroscopic binary, it consists of a pair of G8 III and G0 III → giants with an → orbital period of 104 days. The more evolved former/→ primary star has a slightly larger mass and luminosity (2.6 Msun and 79 Lsun) than that of the latter/→ secondary star (2.5 Msun and 73 Lsun). The primary is a typical late G giant presumably in the He-burning stage (→ red clump), which is lithium deficient and a slow rotator as other normal giants. In contrast, the secondary is a fast rotator (projected rotational velocity is v_e sin i ~ 35 km s-1) with high stellar activity (characterized by conspicuous chromospheric emission lines in UV) and shows a remarkably strong Li line, which indicates that the initial Li content is almost retained without being diluted (the surface Li composition for the secondary is ~100 times higher than that for the primary). That is, the secondary star belongs to the unusual group of Li-rich giants (see, e.g., Takeda et al., 2018, ApJ 862, 57 and Torres et al., 2015, ApJ 807, 26).
From L. capella "little she-goat," diminutive of caper "goat."
Bozbân "goat keeper" (Biruni, A.D. 973-1048, in his Tafhim),
from boz, → goat, + -bân
prefix denoting "keeper."
Menkalinan (Beta Aurigae)
Mankeb-zel-enân, šâne-ye arâbe-rân
A multiple star of magnitude V = 1.90 which is situated in the → Auriga constellation at 81 → light-years away. Other main designations: HR 2088 and HD 40183. Although the third brightest star of the constellation, it bears "Beta" designation. Menkalinan is composed of two main components, which make up a → spectroscopic binary. The combined apparent magnitude varies over a period of 3.96 days between +1.89 and +1.94, as every 47.5 hours one of the stars partially eclipses the other. Both are metallic-lined → subgiant stars of spectral type A2 IV. Each is about 48 times more luminous than the Sun and has roughly the same mass and radius (2.6 times that of the Sun). There is a third component of magnitude 14.1, which is separated from the main pair by 13'', corresponding to a projected distance of 330 → astronomical units.
From Ar. Al Mankib dhi'l 'Inan