An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 45 Search : arc
Antarctic
  دشترگان، جنوبگان   
Daštargân, Jonubgân (#)

Fr.: Antarctique   

The south polar area, south of latitude 66° 33' 8'' S.

Antarctic, from O.Fr. antartique, from M.L. antarcticus, from Gk. antarktikos "opposite the north," from → anti- "opposite" + arktikos, → arctic.

Daštargân, from daštar, → south, + -gân suffix indicating the direction.
Jonubgân, from jonub "south," from Ar. janub "south," + -gân, as above.

arc
  کمان   
kamân (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) General: Something shaped like a → curve or → arch.
2) Math.: A → segment of a → circle.
3) Electricity: A continuous luminous → discharge across a gap between two → electrodes, as in an arc lamp. → electric arc.
4) Astro.: The apparent path of a celestial body above and below the horizon.

M.E. ark, from M.Fr. arc "bow," from L. arcus "bow, arch" (cf. Goth. arhwazna "arrow," O.E. earh), PIE *arqu- "bowed, curved."

Kamân "arc, bow" from Mid.Pers. kamân, related to xam "curve," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent," Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint," L. campus "a field," Lith. kampus "corner," PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."

arc minute
  کمان-دقیقه، دقیقه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-daqiqé, daqiqe-ye kamâni

Fr.: minute de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.

arc; → minute.

arc of light
  کمان ِ نور   
kamân-e nur

Fr.: arc de lumière   

The apparent angular separation (→ elongation) between the → centers of the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → light.

arc of separation
  کمان ِ جدایی   
kamân-e jodâyi

Fr.: arc de séparation   

The difference in → right ascension between the → Sun and the → Moon, measured in degrees.

arc; → separation.

arc of vision
  کمان ِ دید   
kamân-e did

Fr.: arc de vision   

The → angular  → difference in → altitude between the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → vision.

arc second
  کمان-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni

Fr.: seconde de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.

arc; → second.

arc spectrum
  بیناب ِ کمان   
binâb-e kamân

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.

arc; → spectrum.

arch
  تاغ   
tâq (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) A curved structure, normally in the vertical plane, that spans an opening.
2) Any overhead curvature resembling an arch. → Arches cluster.

M.E. arch(e), from O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus "a bow," → arc.

Taq "arch," from tâk, contraction of târak, → vertex.

archaeoastronomy
  باستان‌اخترشناسی   
bâstânaxtaršenâsi

Fr.: archéoastronomie   

The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.

Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.

Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.

arche-
  سر   
sar- (#)

Fr.: arché-, archi   

A prefix meaning "principal, prior, original, first, early" Same as archi-. → archetype.

From Gk. arkhe-, from arckhon "ruler," noun use of p.p. of arkhein "to rule."

Sar-, from sar "top, summit, the capital of a pillar," → head.

Arches cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ تاقها   
xuše-ye tâqhâ

Fr.: amas des Arches   

One of the three → Galactic center clusters supposed to be the densest young → massive star cluster in the Milky Way. It contains the richest collection of → O stars and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars in any cluster in the Galaxy, thus representing the largest collection of the most massive stars in the Galaxy. With its estimated age of 2-3 million years, the Arches cluster is the youngest of the massive clusters in the Galactic center. → Quintuplet cluster; → Central cluster (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

Arches, from the presence of Galactic center thermal → arched filaments, about 100 → light-years in projection from the Galactic center (Morris & Yusef-Zadeh, 1985, AJ 90, 2511), from M.E. arche, O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus, → arc; → cluster.

archetype
  سرنمون   
sarnemun (#)

Fr.: archétype   

The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype (Dictionary.com).

arche-; → type.

Archimedes' principle
  پروز ِ ارشمیدوس   
parvaz-e Arašmidos

Fr.: principe d'Archimède   

A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.

Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.

Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.

architecture
  مهرازیک   
mehrâzik (#)

Fr.: architecture   

1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
2) Computers: The arrangement of the various devices in a computer system or network. See also → software architecture.

M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.

archive
  بایگانی   
bâygâni (#)

Fr.: archive   

Any extensive record or collection of data.

Archive, from Fr. archives, from L. archivum, from Gk. arkheion "government house, town hall," from arkhe "government," from arkhein "to rule".

Bâygâni, maybe from *pâygâni, from pây-, pâyidan "to watch, guard, take care, conserve" + -gân, suffix referring to group, collection, + -i, noun-forming suffix.

Arctic
  هودرگان، شمالگان   
Hudargân, šomâlgân (#)

Fr.: Arctique   

The north polar area, north of latitude 66° 33' 8'' N.

Arctic, from O.Fr. artique, from L. arcticus, from Gk. arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (northerly prominent constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear" (cf. Av. arša-, Mod.Pers. xers, Tabari , Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-).

Hudargân, from hudar, → north, + -gân prefix denoting the direction.
Šomâlgân, from šomâl "north," from Ar. šemâl "north, left"+ -gân.

Arcturus (α Boötis)
  خرسبان، سماک ِ رامح   
Xersbân, Semâk-e râmeh (#)

Fr.: Arcturus   

The fourth brightest star in the sky (V magnitude -0.06) lying in the constellation → Boötes at a distance of about 35 light-years. Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K2 IIIp.

L. Arcturus, from Gk. Arktouros "guardian of the bear," arktos "bear," → Arctic + ouros "guardian, watcher".

Xersbân "guardian of the bear," from xers "bear" (Mid.Pers. xirs, Av. arša-, cognate with Gk. arktos, Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-) + -bân suffix meaning "watcher, keeper, guard".
Ar. Semâk-e râmeh.

Aristarchus' inequality
  ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   
nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus

Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   

Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.

Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality.

astroarchaeology
  اخترباستان‌شناسی، باستان‌اخترشناسی   
axtarbâstânšenâsi(#) , bâstânaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: astroarchéologie   

Same as → archaeoastronomy, megalithic astronomy.

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