blue compact dwarf galaxy
kahkešân-e kutule-ye âbi-ye hampak
Fr.: galaxie naine bleue compacte
An small → irregular galaxy undergoing → violent star formation activity. These objects appear blue by reason of containing clusters of hot, → massive stars which ionize the surrounding interstellar gas. They are chemically unevolved since their → metallicity is only 1/3 to 1/30 of the solar value. Same as → H II galaxy.
1) hampak; 2) hampakidan, hampak kardan
Fr.: 1) compacte; 2) condenser, resserer
1) Closely and firmly joined or packed together;
Occupying little space compared with others of its type.
M.E., from L. compactus "concentrated," p.p. of compingere "to fasten together," from → com- "with, together" + pangere "to fix, fasten," cf. Gk. pegnunai "to fasten, coagulate;" PIE *pag-/*pak- "to fasten."
1) Hampak, from ham-, → com-, +
pak, from pakidé [Mo'in, Dehxodâ]
"thick, dense, compact," in Hamadâni pukida
"much, full, abundant," Kordi pêk "together, joint,"
pêk hatin "to be made up of," pêk hênan
"to collect, constitute," from PIE *pag-/*pak- as above?
compact binary star system
râžmân-e dorin-e hampak
Fr.: système binaire compact
A binary star system which is composed of a collapsed object
(→ degenerate dwarf, → neutron star,
or → black hole) in orbit with a low-mass (≤ 0.5 Msol)
secondary star, wherein the collapsed star → accretes
matter from its → companion.
These two objects form a binary system of overall dimensions
106 km with an orbital period of only hours or less.
→ X-ray binary.
compact central object (CCO)
barâxt-e hampak-e markazi
Fr.: objet compact central
An → X-ray source detected close to the center of young → supernova remnant (SNR)s that has no apparent emission in other wave-bands and no binary companions. Although these sources have been known and studied for several decades without much understanding of their nature, exciting results over the past few years have brought them into the forefront of → neutron star studies. They have soft, exclusively thermal spectra in the few hundred eV range and X-ray luminosities around 1033 - 1034 erg s-1. About ten CCOs are presently known, including the central sources of CasA, Puppis A and Kes 79 supernova remnants. Several, J1852+0040 in Kes79, J0822.0-4300 in Puppis A and 1E 1207.4-5209 in PKS 1209-51/52, have detected pulsations in the hundreds of milliseconds range. J1852+0040 has a detected → period derivative, indicating that it is spinning down like a → rotation-powered pulsar (RPP). The measured period and either measurements or constraints on period derivative indicate that these sources have very low → magnetic fields in the range 1010 - 1011 G assuming magnetic dipole braking. Since their SNRs are all young, ~ 103 - 104 yr, they were probably born with unusually low magnetic fields, which makes them "anti-magnetars" (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679 and references therein).
Fr.: galaxie compacte
A galaxy with no disk or nebulous background and a high surface brightness that appears only barely larger than a star-like point on a sky survey photograph.
compact H II region
nâhiye-ye H II-ye hampak
Fr.: région H II compacte
A Galactic H II region with an electron density ≥ 103 cm-3 and of a linear dimension ≤ 1 pc.
compact high-velocity clouds (CHVCs)
abrhâ-ye hampak-e tondrow
Fr.: nuages compacts à grande vitesse
A population of relatively small (typically < 2°) → high-velocity clouds, which are spatially and kinematically isolated from the gas distribution in their environment. They are thought to be located in the → intergalactic medium of the → Local Group.
compact massive galaxy (CMG)
kahkešân-e porjerm-e hampak
Fr.: galaxie massive compacte
A galaxy with a stellar mass of M ≥ 1011Msun and an → effective radius of Re ≤ 1.5 kpc. Many studies have shown that massive galaxies with low → star formation rates were remarkably compact at a → redshift of z≥ 2. At fixed stellar mass of Mstars ≅ 1011Msun, quiescent galaxies are a factor of ~ 4 smaller at z = 2 than at z = 0. As the stellar mass of the galaxies also evolves, the inferred size growth of individual galaxies is even larger. It is unlikely that all massive galaxies in the present-day Universe had a compact progenitor. However, the vast majority of CMGs that are observed at z = 2 ended up in the center of a much larger galaxy today. Their size growth after z = 2 is probably dominated by minor → mergers. Such mergers are expected because other mechanisms cannot easily produce the observed scaling between size growth and mass growth (P. G. van Dokkum1 et al., 2015, ApJ 813, 23).
Fr.: objet compact
compact planetary nebula B[e] star (cPNB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye miq-e sayyâre-yi-ye hampak
Fr.: étoile de nébuleuse planétaire compacte
compact radio source
xan-e râdioyi-ye hampak
Fr.: source radio compacte
An object emitting intense energy in radio wavelength from a small, unresolved central region.
Fr.: espace compact
A topological space for which every collection of open sets that covers the space has a finite subset that also covers the space.
1) Math.: A process applied to topological spaces having
many dimensions to make them compact spaces.
Compactification, n. from → compactify.
Verbal form of → compactification.
Compactify, from → compact + -ify "cause to become," M.E. -fien, from O.Fr. -fier, from L. -ficare, root of facere "to make, do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do" (cf. Skt. dadhati "puts, places;" Av. dadaiti "he puts," O.Pers. ada "he made," Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place."
1) General: The quality of being compact.
Fr.: compactification conforme
A mapping of an infinite → space-time onto a finite one that may make the far away parts of the former accessible to study. The technique invented by Penrose defines an equivalence class of → metrics, gab being equivalent to ĝab = Ω2gab, where Ω is a positive scalar function of the space-time that modifies the distance scale making the asymptotics of the physical metric accessible to study.
Hickson Compact Group (HCG)
goruh-e hampak-e Hickson
Fr.: groupe compact de Hickson
A list of 100 compact groups of galaxies that were identified by a systematic search of the → Palomar Observatory Sky Survey red prints. Each group contains four or more galaxies, has an estimated mean surface brightness brighter than 26.0 magnitude per arcsec2 and satisfies an isolation criterion.
ultracompact H II region
nâhiye-ye H II-ye ultar hampak
Fr.: région H II ultracompacte
A very young → H II region fully embedded in its natal molecular cloud. Ultracompact H II regions are distinguished from classical H II regions by their small sizes (diameter ≥ 0.1 pc), high densities (Ne ≥ 105 cm-3), and high emission measures (EM ≥ 107 pc cm-6). Their typical ionized gas content is about 10-2 → solar masses, in contrast to classical H II regions with a mass of about 105 solar masses. Due to very important extinction, ultracompact H II regions are not accessible to visible wavelengths.