An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12 Search : early
early
  آغازین   
âqâzin (#)

Fr.: précoce; jeune   

Occurring at or near the beginning of a period of time, process, or sequence of events.

M.E. erlich (adj.), erliche (adv.); O.E. ærlice, from ær "soon, ere" (from P.Gmc. *airiz, from PIE *āier- "day, morning," cf. Av. ayar- "day, day time," ayarə.drājah- "duration of one day," ayarə.bara- "day's ride," Mid/Mod.Pers. parēr "the day before yesterday," from *parā.ayer- "the day before") + -lice "-ly," adverbial suffix.

Âqâzin adj. of âqâz "beginning," from Proto-Iranian *āgaHz-, from prefix ā- + *gaHz- "to run, start," cf. Sogdian āγāz "beginning, start" (Cheung 2007).

early AGB phase
  فاز ِ AGBی ِ آغازین   
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin

Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB   

A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.

early; → AGB; → phase.

early solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی ِ آغازین   
râžmân-e xoršidi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: système solaire primordial   

A period in the evolution of the → solar system when the planets and satellites were in the process of formation.

early; → solar; → system.

early spectral class star
  ستاره با رده‌ی ِ بینابی ِ آغازین   
setâré bâ rade-ye binâbi-ye âqâzin

Fr.: étoile de type spectral précoce   

A star near the beginning of the → spectral classification sequence. A star of → spectral type O, B, A, or F0 to F5. Same as → early-type star.

early; → spectral; → class; → star.

early Universe
  گیتی ِ آغازین   
giti-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: Univers jeune   

A qualitative term used to describe a phase in the history of the Universe, from the → Big Bang event to the apparition of the first structures (seeds of future galaxies), at a → redshift around 30.

early; → universe.

early-type galaxy (ETG)
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
kahkešân-e gune-ye âqâzin

Fr.: galaxie de type précoce   

In the → Hubble classification, galaxies on the left part of the → Hubble sequence. Early-type galaxies tend to have redder colors, higher average surface brightnesses, and lower → neutral hydrogen content than → late-type galaxies. This terminology is based on the obsolete and erroneous idea that → elliptical and → lenticular galaxies might be evolutionary precursors to → spiral and → barred spiral galaxies.

early; → type; → galaxy.

early-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ آغازین   
setâre-ye gun-ye âqâzin (#)

Fr.: étoile de type précoce   

Hot, luminous stars of → spectral type O, B, A, and F0 to F5. They were originally thought, wrongly, to be at an earlier stage of evolution than → late-type stars. See also → spectral classification.

early; → type; → star.

faint early Sun paradox
  پارادخش ِ خورشید ِ کمتاب ِ آغازین   
pârâdaxš-e xoršid-e kamtâb-e âqâzin

Fr.: paradoxe du Soleil jeune faible   

The contradiction between a colder Sun (about 30% less luminous) some 4 billion years ago, as predicted by models, and the warm ancient Terrestrial and Martian climates derived from geological evidence.

faint; → early; → sun; → paradox.

linearly
  خطانه   
xattâné

Fr.: linéairement   

In a manner characterized by first-degree algebraic terms.

Adverb of → linear.

linearly dependent
  خطانه وابسته   
xattâné vâbasté

Fr.: linéairement dépendant   

A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) on a given set if there is a linear combination of them: a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn, which is zero, but at least one of the coefficients is non-zero. For example the binomials (2x + y) and (6x + 3y) are linearly dependent, since 3(2x + y) - (6x + 3y) = 0.

linearly; → dependent.

linearly independent
  خطانه ناوابسته   
xattâné nâvâbasté

Fr.: linéairement indépendant   

1) A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) if it si not → linearly dependent.
2) Of two particular solutions (y1, y2) of a → homogeneous linear differential equation of the second order (y'' + a1 y' + a2y = 0) on an interval [a, b], if their ratio in this interval is not a constant: y1/y2≠ constant.

linearly; → independent.

linearly polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده‌ی ِ خطی   
nur-e qotbide-ye xatti

Fr.: lumière polarisée linéairement   

Light exhibiting → linear polarization.

linearly; → polarized; → light.