An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 17 Search : group
carbonyl group
  گروه ِ کربونیل   
goruh-e karbonil (#)

Fr.: groupe carbonyl   

The radical -C=O, which occurs in several compounds, such as → aldehydes and ketones.

From → carbon + -yl a suffix used in the names of some radicals; → group.

cyclic group
  گروه ِ چرخه‌ای   
goruh-e carxe-yi

Fr.: groupe cyclic   

A group in which each element can be expressed as a power of any other element.

cyclic; → group.

gauge group
  گروه ِ گز   
goruh-e gaz (#)

Fr.: groupe de jauge   

The mathematical group associated with a particular set of gauge transformations.

gauge; → group.

  ۱) گروه؛ ۲) گروهاندن؛ گروهیدن   
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan

Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper   

1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or regarded as belonging together; e.g. → Local Group of galaxies.
1b) Math.: A set of elements a, b, c, ..., finite or infinite in number, with a rule for combining any two of them to form a "product," subject to the following four axioms: → closure axiom, → associative axiom, → identity axiom, and → inverse axiom.
2a) ( To place or associate together in a group.
2b) (v.intr.) To be part of a group.

From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."

Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."

group theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گروه   
negare-ye goruh (#)

Fr.: théorie des groupes   

A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.

group; → theory.

group velocity
  تندای ِ گروه   
tondâ-ye goruh

Fr.: vitesse de groupe   

The velocity at which the envelope of a → wave packet propagates, vgr = dω/dk, at k0 (the central value of k). The group velocity can be equal to, larger, or smaller than the → phase velocity.

group; → velocity.


Fr.: groupement   

The act or process of uniting into groups.
A collection of things assembled into a group.
The occurence of several astronomical objects, usually of the same category, in a region of the sky.

Verbal noun of → group.

Hickson Compact Group (HCG)
  گروه ِ همپک ِ هیکسون   
goruh-e hampak-e Hickson

Fr.: groupe compact de Hickson   

A list of 100 compact groups of galaxies that were identified by a systematic search of the → Palomar Observatory Sky Survey red prints. Each group contains four or more galaxies, has an estimated mean surface brightness brighter than 26.0 magnitude per arcsec2 and satisfies an isolation criterion.

Hickson, Paul, 1982, ApJ 255, 382; → compact; → group.

hydroxyl group (OH)
  گروه ِ هیدروکسیل   
goruh-e hidroksil (#)

Fr.: groupe hydroxyle   

The univalent radical or group consisting of one hydrogen and one oxygen atom, forming a part of a molecule of a compound.

From → hydro- + ox(y)- a combining form meaning "sharp, acute, pointed, acid," used in the formation of compound words, from Gk, oxys "sharp, keen, acid" + -yl a suffix used in the names of chemical radicals, from Fr. -yle, from Gk. hyle "matter, substance;" → group.

Local Group
  گروه ِ محلی   
goruh-e mahali (#)

Fr.: Groupe local   

A small cluster of about 40 galaxies to which our Milky Way Galaxy belongs. The Local Group occupies a volume of space nearly 10 million light-years across centered somewhere between the → Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and the Milky Way, which are the dominant galaxies of the group; Andromeda being the principal member. Both of these galaxies exhibit spiral structures, and each is attended by a large family of satellite → dwarf galaxies. The Local Group also includes a third spiral galaxy known as → Triangulum (M33), which is bound to Andromeda. The remaining members span a range of → Hubble classification types from dwarf spheroidal to Irr to Sb and Sc and cover a factor of 10 in → metallicity. The total mass of the Local Group is estimated to be about 2 x 1012 solar masses, although this value is still uncertain to within a factor of about 2. The velocities of the individual galaxies of the Local Group are not particularly high. Therefore no member is believed to be able to escape the group, which is thus considered to be gravitationally → bound. Another remarkable member of the Group is → IC 10.

local; → group.

moving group
  گروه ِ جنبنده   
goruh-e jonbandé

Fr.: groupe mobile   

A young → stellar population that shares a common space motion. A moving group remains kinematically distinct within the general field stars at ages < 1 billion years, before being dispersed. As progenitor gas is cleared by OB star winds, and the natal cluster expands, stars with sufficiently high velocities become unbound and form a young, coeval moving group, possibly leaving behind a bound open cluster. Because of their common origin, moving group members have a shared age and composition. The nearest moving group is the → TW Hydrae association.

moving; → group.

platinum group element (PGE)
  بن‌پار ِ گروه ِ پلاتین   
bonpâr-e goruh-e pelâtin

Fr.: élément du groupe du platine   

One of the six metals → platinum (Pt), → iridium (Ir), → osmium (Os), → palladium (Pd), → rhenium (Rh), and → ruthenium (Ru) that are grouped together in the → periodic table. They are relatively hard and resistant to corrosion and are used in jewellery and in some industrial applications. All are resistant to chemical attack.

platinum; → group; → element.

Sculptor Group
  گروه ِ پیکرتراش   
goruh-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: groupe du Sculpteur   

The nearest group of galaxies to our → Local Group, lying near the south Galactic pole at about 10 million → light-years distance. The Sculptor Group is dominated by five galaxies, four spiral (NGC 247, 253, 300, and 7793) and one irregular (NGC 55). The brightest of the five is NGC 253. The nearest galaxy in this group is NGC 55 which at a distance of 5 million light-years lies on the border of the Local Group.

Sculptor; → group.

space group
  گروه ِ فضایی   
goruh-e fazâyi

Fr.: groupe d'espace   

Set of operations (rotation about an axis, reflection across a plane, translation, or combination of these) which when carried out on a periodic arrangement of points in space brings the system of points to self-coincidence.

The word group comes from the mathematical notion of a group.

symmetry group
  گروه ِ همامونی   
goruh-e hamâmuni

Fr.: groupe de symétrie   

A group of symmetry-preserving operations composed of all rigid motions or similarity transformations of some geometric object onto itself.

symmetry; → group.

unitary group
  گروه ِ یکایی، ~ یکانی   
goruh-e yekâyi, ~ yekâni

Fr.: groupe unitaire   

The set of n × n unitary matrices (→ unitary matrix).

unitary; → group.

working group
kâr-goruh (#)

Fr.: groupe de travail   

A group of people working together to achieve a stated goal.

work; → -ing; → group.