Suffix -ics, from -ic + plural suffix -s, from O.Fr. -ique, from L. -icus, Gk. -ikos; cf. O.E. -ig, from P.Gmc. *-iga, Ger. -ig.
Mod.Pers. -ik, from Mid.Pers. -ik or -ig, possibly from
the Av. noun and adjective forming suffix -ika, -ka, -aka (as in
ainika- "face," maršdika- "mercy," pairikā-
"fairy," kasvika- "trifling," kutaka- "small," ahmāka-
"ours"). In Mid.Pers. it had an extensive use for
creating adjectives of relation. Some examples:
1) The study of sound, especially of its generation, propagation,
From Fr. acoustique, from Gk. akoustikos "pertaining to hearing," from akoustos "heard, audible," from akouein "to hear," from copulative prefix a- + koein "to mark, perceive, hear," from PIE root *(s)keu- "to notice, observe."
Sedâyik from sedâ "sound" + Pers. suffix -ik, → -ics. Sedâ is most probably Persian, since it exists also in Indo-Aryan languages: Skt. (late Vedic): sabda "articulate sound, noise," Pali and Prakriti: sadda "sound, noise," Sindhi: sadu, sado "shout, call," Gujrâti sad "call, voice, echo," Marathi: sad "shouting to," Konkani sad "sound," Sinhali: sada "sound." Therefore, sadâ in Arabic "reverbrating noise, echo" may be borrowed from Persian, or a coincidence. Note that for the author of the classical Persian dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' (India, 1652 A.D.), the Arabic term is a loanword from Persian.
→ phone; →phonetics.
Fr.: optique active
A technique for improving the → resolving power of a telescope by controlling the shape of the main mirror at a relatively slow rate. The → image quality is optimized automatically through constant adjustments by in-built corrective → actuators operating at fairly low temporal frequency ~0.05 Hz or less. → adaptive optics.
Fr.: optique adaptative
A technique for improving the → image quality of a telescope against → atmospheric turbulence in which image distortions are compensated by high-speed changes in the shape of a small, thin mirror. → wavefront; → wavefront distortion; → wavefront correction; → Strehl ratio; → tip-tilt mirror, → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, → active optics.
ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
Fr.: ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
An → adaptive optics instrument used on the → European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. It was an upgraded version of COME-ON-PLUS, the → Very Large Telescope (VLT) adaptive optics prototype. It had 52 → actuators and performed corrections of the mirror 200 times per second. The reference → wavefront was sensed in the → visible. The observation was done in the → near-infrared (1-5 μm).
adaptive optics system
râžmân-e nurik-e niyâveši
Fr.: système d'optique adaptative
The science and technology concerned with designing, constructing, and operating machines capable of flying in the atmosphere.
From aeronautic, from Fr. aéronautique, from aéro-, from Gk. aer, → air, + nautique "of ships," from L. nauticus, from Gk. nautikos, from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship").
Havânavardi, from havâ, → air, + navardi, verbal noun of navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over."
zibâyik (#), zibâyi-šenâsi
1) The branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly,
the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with a view to establishing
the meaning and validity of critical judgments concerning works of art, and the
principles underlying or justifying such judgments.
From Ger. Ästhetisch or Fr. esthétique, both from Gk. aisthetikos "sensitive, perceptive," from aisthanesthai "to perceive, to feel."
Fr.: mécanique analytique
A branch of → mechanics based on → variational principle that describes systems by their → Lagrangian or → Hamiltonian. Analytical mechanics provides a formalism that is different from that of Newton and does not use the concept of force. Among other things, analytical mechanics gives a more simple description of continuous and constrained systems. Moreover, its mathematical structure allows it an easier transition to quantum mechanical topics.
fizik-e kârbordi (#)
Fr.: physique appliquée
A set of topics in physics intended for a particular or practical use. Applied physics programs are usually interfaces between pure physics and technology.
The science dealing with the motion of satellites, rockets, and spacecrafts. It uses the principles of celestial mechanics.
Astrodynamics, from → astro- "star" + → dynamics.
fazânavardi (#), keyhânnavardi (#)
The science and technology of space flight, including the building and operation of space vehicles.
Fr.: physique des astroparicules
The branch of → astronomy that deals with the → physics of → celestial objects and the → Universe in general. It relies on the assumption that the → laws of physics apply everywhere in the Universe and throughout all time. See also → observational astrophysics, → theoretical astrophysics.
Astrophysics, from → astro- "star" + → physics. The first use of the term astrophysics has been attributed to Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882) in 1865. He defined it as a coalescence of physics and chemistry with astronomy (History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia, ed. John Lankford, Routledge, 1997).
partâbik (#), partâbšenâsi (#)
The science of the motion and behavior of → projectiles. The study of the functioning of firearms.
From L. ballista "ancient military machine for hurling stones," from Gk. ballistes, from ballein "to throw," from PIE *gwelH1- "to throw;" cf. Pers. garzin "arrow;" Av. niγr- "to throw down;" Khotanese (+ *abi-, *ui-) bīr- "to throw, sow;" Proto-Iranian *garH- "to throw."
Fr.: statistique biasée
A statistics based on a → biased sample.
The retrieval and analysis of biochemical and biological data using mathematics and computer science, as in the study of genomes (Dictionary.com).
The science that deals with biological structures and processes involving the application of physical principles and methods.
The science concerned with the functions of life, or vital activity and force.