An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 10 Search : magnetism
antiferromagnetism
  پاد‌آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
pâd-âhanmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: antiferromagnétisme   

A property possessed by some → metals, → alloys, and salts of transition elements in which there is a lack of → magnetic moment due to the antiparallel or spiral arrangement of atomic → magnetic moments.

anti- + → ferromagnetism.

diamagnetism
  پادمغنات‌مندی   
pâdmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: diamagnétisme   

The property of a substance, like bismuth, that creates a weak magnetic field in opposition of an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. In diamagnetic materials the → magnetic moments of individual atoms are not permanent. Within each atom the electron spins and orbital motions all exactly balance out, so any particular atom has no net magnetic moment. The external magnetic field generates little currents by induction. According to → Lenz's law, the induced magnetic moments of the atoms are directed opposite to the magnetic field.

Diamagnetic, from Gk. dia- a prefix used with several meanings "passing through; thoroughly; completely; going apart," and in the present case "opposed;" → magnetic. magnetic.

Pâdmeqnât, from pâd- "against, contrary," → anti-, + megnâtmagnetism.

electromagnetism
  برقامغنات، برقامغناتیس   
barqâmeghnât, barqâmeghnâtis

Fr.: électromagnétisme   

1) The science dealing with the physical relations between → electricity and → magnetism. Same as → electromagnetic theory.
2) One of the four fundamental forces of nature, governing the electric and magnetic interaction between particles.

electro-; → magnetism.

ferromagnetism
  آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
âhanmegnâtmandi

Fr.: ferromagnétisme   

A property of certain substances which are enormously more magnetic than any other known substance. Ferromagnetic substances, such as the chemical elements iron, nickel, cobalt, some of the rare earths, and ceratin alloys, achieve maximum → magnetization at relatively low magnetic field strengths. Their large → magnetic permeabilityies (greater than unity) vary with the strength of the applied field. When the temperature of a ferromagnet is increased the property vanishes gradually due to randomizing effects of thermal agitation. Beyond a definite temperature for each substance ( → Curie temperature) it ceases to behave as a ferromagnet and becomes a → paramagnet. Ferromagnetism is due to the alignment of the → magnetic moments of uncompensated electrons in the crystal lattice. Under the influence of an external magnetizing field, all of the uncompensated electrons line up with their → spins in the direction of the field. In contrast with paramagnetic substances, in which spins interact only with an external magnetic field, in ferromagnets the spins interact with each others, each of them trying to align the others in its own direction. This coupling gives rise to a spontaneous alignment of the moments over macroscopic regions called domains. The domains undergo further alignment when the substance is subjected to an applied field. Ferromagnets retain their magnetisation even when the external magnetic field has been removed. See also → antiferromagnetism ; → diamagnetism; → magnetism.

ferro-; → magnetism.

Gauss's law for magnetism
  قانون ِ گاؤس در مغنات‌مندی   
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi

Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme   

The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.

gauss; → law; → magnetism.

geomagnetism
  زمین‌مغنات‌مندی   
zamin-meqnâtmandi

Fr.: géomagnetsme   

A branch of geophysics concerned with the study of the Earth's → geomagnetic field, including its origin, spatial extent, and variations in time.

geo-; → magnetism.

magnetism
  مغنات‌مندی   
meqnâtmandi

Fr.: magnétisme   

The science of magnetic phenomena, including the fields and forces produced by magnets and, more generally, by moving electric charges.

N.L. magnetismus; → magnet + → -ism.

nuclear magnetism
  مغناتیس ِ هسته‌ای   
meqnâtis-e haste-yi (#)

Fr.: magnétisme nucléaire   

The magnetism associated with the magnetic field generated by atomic nuclei.

nuclear; → magnetism.

paleomagnetism
  پارین‌مغناتیس   
pârin-meqnâtis

Fr.: paléomagnétisme   

The study of natural remanent magnetization in order to determine the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field in the geologic past.

paleo-; → magnetism.

paramagnetism
  پارامغنات‌مندی   
pârâmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: paramagnétisme   

The property of a substance that possesses a → magnetic permeability greater than that of a vacuum but significantly less than that exhibited by → ferromagnetism. In the absence of an external magnetic field the atomic → magnetic moments of the substance are randomly oriented and thus cancel each other out with no net total magnetic moment. Moreover the coupling between neighboring moments is weak. However, when a magnetic field is applied magnetic moments align with the direction of the field and so the magnetic moments add together. Therefore paramagnetic substances affect external fields in a positive way, by attraction to the field resulting in a local increase in the magnetic field. The → magnetization vanishes when the field is removed.

para- + → magnetism