Carnot cycle carxe-ye Carnot Fr.: cycle de Carnot A → cyclic process comprising a sequence of → isothermal and → adiabatic expansions and compressions that bring a system back to its initial state. Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832), a French physicist and military engineer who, in his 1824 Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines; → cycle. |
Einstein notation namâdgân-e Einstein Fr.: convention Einstein A notation convention in → tensor analysis whereby whenever there is an expression with a repeated → index, the summation is done over that index from 1 to 3 (or from 1 to n, where n is the space dimension). For example, the dot product of vectors a and b is usually written as: a.b = Σ (i = 1 to 3) a_{i}.b_{i}. In the Einstein notation this is simply written as a.b = a_{i}.b_{i}. This notation makes operations much easier. Same as Einstein summation convention. |
monotheism yektâ-yazdân-bâvari, yektâ-parasti (#) Fr.: monothéisme The belief or doctrine that there is only one → God. |
monotonic yeknavâxt (#) Fr.: monotone Of a mathematical function, either continuously increasing or decreasing. From Fr. monotone, from Gk. monotonos "monotonous, of one tone," from monos, → mono- "single, alone" + tonos "tone" + → -ic. Yeknavâxt "monotonous," from yek "one, single," + navâxt"rhythm," from navâxtan, navâzidan "to play an instrument; to gratify," navâ "music, song, melody;" Mid.Pers. nw'c "to treat kindly, honour," niwag "music, melody;" Proto-Iranian *ni-uac-, from *ni- (→ ni-) + *uac- "to speak, treat kindly," → word. |
nanotechnology nâno-tašnik-šenâsi Fr.: nanotechnologie The science and technology of producing and exploiting structures and systems at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 → nanometers, that is those of single atoms and molecules. Materials with such minute structures possess mechanical, optical, chemical, magnetic or electronic properties not found in ordinary materials. → nano-; → technology. |
not na, nâ, ni Fr.: non; ne ... pas A → particle used to express → negation, → denial, refusal, or prohibition. Not, variant of noht, naht "in no way," from O.E. nawiht "nothing" (from na "no, never" + whit "whit"), akin to Pers. na, nâ, as below. Na "no, not," variants nâ, ni, ma- (prohibitive) "not;" from Mid.Pers. nê, ma "no, not;" O.Pers. naiy, nai "not;" Av. nôit, naē "not;" cf. Skt. ná "not;" cf. L. ne-, in-, un-; Gk. ni; Lith. nè; O.C.S. ne "not;" E. not, as above; PIE *ne-. |
notation namâdgân (#) Fr.: notation Representation of numbers, quantities, or other entities by symbols; a system of symbols for such a purpose. From L. notationem (nom. notatio) "a marking, explanation," from notatus, p.p. of notare "to note." Namâdgân, from namâd, → symbol, + -gân suffix denoting order, organization, multiplicity. |
note not (#) Fr.: note Musical sound of specified frequency (pitch) produced by a musical instrument, voice, etc. From M.E., from O.F., from M.L. nota "sign for musical tone; mark, sign, lettering." Not, loanword from Fr. |
nothing hic (#) Fr.: rien 1) No thing; not anything; naught. M.E., from O.E. nathing, nathinc, from nan "not one," → non-, + → thing. Mid.Pers. hêc, hêc(i), hâca "any." |
notion pendâré (#) Fr.: notion A general understanding; vague or imperfect conception or idea of something. From L. notio "concept, conception, idea," from noscere "to know," → knowledge. Pendâré, noun from pendâštan "to imagine, consider, think," → imaginary number. |
place-value notation nemâdgân-e jâ-arezeši Fr.: notation positionnelle A mathematical notation system in which the → numerals get different values depending on their position relative to the other numerals. Same as → positional notation and → positional number system. |
positional notation nemâdgân-e neheši Fr.: notation positionnelle A system of representing → numbers in which the → position of a → digit in a string of digits affects its value. The decimal system is a positional notation for expressing numbers. Same as → place-value notation and → positional number system. → positional; → notation. |
scientific notation namâdgân-e dâneši, ~ dânešik Fr.: notation scientifique A compact format for writing very large or very small numbers. Numbers are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. For example 3.58 x 10^{4} is the scientific notation for 35,800. → scientific; → notation. |