Fr.: phase adiabatique
Same as the → Sedov-Taylor phase.
Fr.: clôture de phase
In astronomical interferometry, a method using triplets of telescopes in an array to calculate the phase information and get over the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The method, used in high-resolution astronomical observations, both at radio and at optical wavelengths, allows imaging of complex objects in the presence of severe aberrations.
To make two signals out of phase. For example, to get one signal at its highest peak while the other signal is at its lowest peak; they will be 180 degrees out of phase.
Same as → out of phase.
Past participle of → dephase.
early AGB phase
fâz-e AGB-ye âqâzin
Fr.: phase initiale de l'AGB
A fairly long-lived step in the evolution of → low-mass and → intermediate-mass stars when helium burning shifts from the center to a shell around the core. At this phase the stellar luminosity is provided almost entirely by → helium shell burning. The He-shell burning generally adds mass to the growing carbon/oxygen core, resulting in → degenerate matter due to its increasing density.
free expansion phase
fâz-e gostareš-e âzâd
Fr.: phase d'expansion libre
The first phase of → supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in which the surrounding → interstellar medium (ISM) has no influence on the expansion of the → shock wave, and the pressure of the interstellar gas is negligible. The shock wave created by the → supernova explosion moves outward into the interstellar gas at highly → supersonic speed. Assuming that most of the → supernova energy ESN is transformed into → kinetic energy of the ejected gas, the ejection velocity ve can be estimated from ESN by using ESN = (1/2) Meve2, which leads to ve = (2ESN / Me)(1/2), where Me is the ejected mass. The schematic structure of the SNR at this phase can be described as follows: behind the strong → shock front which moves outward into the ISM, compressed interstellar gas accumulates forming a → shell of interstellar gas. This shell of swept-up material in front of shock does not represent a significant increase in the mass of the system. After some time the accumulated mass equals the ejected mass of stellar material, and it will start to affect the expansion of the SNR. By definition, this is the end of the free expansion phase, and the corresponding radius of the SNR, called → sweep-up radius, RSW, is defined by Me = (4π/3) RSW3ρ0, that is RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where ρ0 is the initial density of the ISM. This radius is reached at the sweep-up time tSW = RSW/ve. The free expansion phase lasts some 100-200 years until the mass of the material swept up by the shock wave exceeds the mass of the ejected material. Then the following → snowplow phase starts.
Fr.: phase de Hayashi
A period in the → pre-main sequence evolution of a low mass star during which the star has negligible nuclear energy production and low internal temperature. Hence energy transport inside the star takes place dominantly through → convection. The star contracts homologously and evolves in the → H-R diagram along the → hayashi track with decreasing → luminosity and nearly constant → effective temperature. The time taken by a star of mass M* to contract to radius R* along a Hayashi track is of the order of the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time: tKH = 107(M*/Msun)2/(R*/Rsun)3 yr.
Fr.: en phase
The condition which exists when two waves of the same frequency pass through their maximum and minimum values in a correlated or synchronized way.
initial phase angle
zâviye-ye fâz-e âqâzin
Fr.: angle de phase initial
The value of the phase corresponding to the origin of time. Same as the → epoch angle.
simâ-ye mâh (#)
Fr.: phase de la lune
One of the various changes in the apparent shape of the Moon, because as the Moon orbits the Earth different amounts of its illuminated part are facing us. The phases of the Moon include: the → new moon, → waxing crescent, → first quarter, → waxing gibbous, → full moon, → waning gibbous, → last quarter, → waning crescent, and → new moon again.
out of phase
The condition of two oscillators that have the same frequency but different phases. Opposed to → in phase.
1, 2) fâz; 3) simâ
1) A particular stage or point in a course, development,
or graph varying cyclically; the fractional
part of the period through which the time has advanced, measured from
some arbitrary origin. Phase
is measured like an angle, when a complete cycle is equivalent to a
phase of 360° (or 2π radians), or, sometimes, as a number between 0
and 1. Two or more waves of the same frequency are
→ in phase when their maxima and minima take place at the same
moments. Otherwise, they are said to be → out of phase
or that they have a → phase difference.
Mod.L. phases, plural of phasis, from Gk. phasis "appearance," from stem of phainein "to show, to make appear."
1) Fâz, loanword from Fr., as above.
zâviye-ye fâz (#)
Fr.: angle de phase
1) Physics: Of a → periodic wave,
the number of suitable units of angular
measure between a point on the wave and a reference point.
Fr.: courbe de phase
1) Astro.: A curve describing the → brightness
of a reflecting → natural satellite as a
function of its → phase angle.
Fr.: délai de phase
The ratio of the phase shift of a sinusoidal signal in transmission through a system to the frequency of the signal.
Fr.: diagramme de phases
A graph showing the equilibrium relationships between phases (such as vapor-liquid, liquid-solid) of a chemical compound, mixture of compounds, or solution.
Fr.: différence de phase
The difference of phase (usually expressed as a time or an angle) between two periodic quantities which vary sinusoidally and have the same frequency.
Fr.: équilibre de phases
The condition of temperature and pressure under which different phases (e.g. gas, liquid, and solid) of a substance coexist.
Fr.: fonction de phase
The variation in brightness of a target as the phase angle (the angle between Sun and observer as seen from the target) varies between 0° and 180°. The directional distribution of reflected (or scattered) radiation. The phase angle is the supplement of the scattering angle (the angle between the incident ray and the emerging ray); in other words, the sum of the phase angle and the scattering angle is always 180° (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).
Fr.: différence de phase
1) General: Same as → phase difference.
→ phase; lag, possibly from a Scandinavian source; cf. Norw. lagga "go slowly."