An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 81 Search : rate
aberrate
  بیراهیدن   
birâhidan

Fr.: s'égarer, dévier   

Diverge or deviate from the straight path; produce → aberration.

Aberrate, from aberrare "go astray," from ab- "away" + errare "to wander."

Birâhidan, from birâh "a devious path; a wanderer, who deviates, errs," from bi- "without" + râh "way".

accelerate
  شتابیدن، شتافتن؛ شتاباندن   
šetâbidan (#), šetâftan (#); šetâbândan (#)

Fr.: accélérer   

(v.tr.) To increase the velocity of a body; to cause to undergo acceleration.
(v.intr.) To increase in speed.

Verbal form of → acceleration.

accelerated motion
  جنبش ِ شتابدار   
jonbeš-e šetâbdâr (#)

Fr.: mouvement accéléré   

The motion of an object subject to → acceleration. Opposite to → uniform motion.

Accelerated, from → accelerate; → motion.

Jonbeš, → motion; šetâbdâr "accelerated," from šetâbaccelerate + dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

accretion rate
  نرخ ِ فربال   
nerx-e farbâl

Fr.: taux d'accrétion   

The amount of mass → accreted during unit time. The accretion rate for the → collapse of a singular → isothermal sphere is expressed by: dM/dt = 0.975 cs3/G, where cs is the isothermal → sound speed (Shu 1977, ApJ 214, 488). This relation can be written as: dM/dt = 4.36 x 10-6 (T / 20 K)3/2 in units of solar masses per year, where T is the temperature. Observed temperatures of 10-20 K in regions of → low-mass star formation imply accretion rates of about 10-6 to 10-5 solar masses per year. Accretion rates for → massive stars amount to values of 10-4 to 10-3 solar masses per year.

accretion; → rate.

accurate
  رشمند   
rašmand

Fr.: exact, précis   

1) Conforming exactly to truth or to a standard; free from error.
2) Designating → accuracy.

Accurate, from L. accuratus, → accuracy.

accurate to n decimal places
  رشمند با n رقم پس از جداگر یا ممیز   
rašmand bâ n raqam pas az jodâgar yâ momayez

Fr.: précis à n décimale, ~ avec n chiffres après la virgule, à n décimales près   

An expression specifying the number of meaningful digits to the right of the → decimal point. For example, e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is said to be accurate to three decimal places and 2.72 to two decimal places.

accurate; → decimal; → place.

accurate to n significant digits
  رشمند با n رقم ِ نشانار   
rašmand bâ n raqam-e nešânâr

Fr.: écrit avec n chiffres significatifs   

An expression specifying the number of meaningful digits used to express the value of a measured quantity. Same as accurate to n significant figures. For example, e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is rounded to four significant digits, and 2.72 to three significant digits. → accurate to n decimal places.

accurate; → significant; → digit.

agglomerate
  ۱) برگلمیدن؛ ۲) برگلمیده؛ ۳) برگلم   
1) bargolemidan; 2) bargolemidé; 3) bargolem

Fr.: 1) agglomérer; 2,3) aggloméré   

1) (v.) To collect or gather into a cluster or mass.
2) (adj.) Gathered together into a cluster or mass.
3a) (n.) A mass of things clustered together.
3b) A rock composed of rounded or angular volcanic fragments (Dictionary.com).

From L. agglomeratus, p.p. of agglomerare "to wind or add onto a ball," from → ad- "to" + glomerare to "wind up in a ball," from glomus (genitive glomeris) "ball of yarn," globus "globe;" PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

Bargolemidan, from suffix bar- "to, on, upon," + golem, from Lori, Laki golemâ, golama "curd, obtained from milk by coagulation, used to make cheese," Lori golem "stagnating water," Sangesari, Semnâni, Sorxe-yi, Lâsgardi golma, "boll, i.e. the rounded seed capsule of plants such as cotton," + -idan infinitive suffix.

astrate
  ستاریدن   
setâridan

Fr.:   

Verbal form of → astration.

astration.

Barringer Crater
  لاوک ِ برینگر   
lâvak-e Barringer

Fr.: cratère Barringer   

Same as → Meteor Crater.

Names after Daniel Barringer (1860-1929), American geologist, who bought the Crater in 1903, convinced that it was made by a huge → meteorite; → crater.

calibrate
  کبیزیدن   
kabizidan

Fr.: étalonner   

To adjust or determine, by comparison with a standard, the response magnitude of a measuring instrument as a function of the input signal. For example, to determine line wavelengths in the spectrum of an astronomical object, or to graduate a hygrometer.

From M.Fr. calibre, via Sp. or It., from Ar. qalib "a mold, last," perhaps from Gk. kalopodion "a shoemaker's last," from kalon "wood" + podos gen. of pous "foot."

Kabizidan, verbal form of kabiz (varianats kaviz, kaviž, kafiz) "a measure for grain, a bushel," from Mid.Pers. kabiz "a grain measure," loaned in Arm. kapic "a grain measure," and in Gk. kapithe, as attested in Xenophon.

carbohydrate
  گلوسید   
glusid

Fr.: glucide, hydrate de carbone   

A molecular compound made from just three → chemical elements: → carbon, → hydrogen, and → oxygen. Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CxH2yOy, and thus were once thought to represent "hydrated carbon." However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do with → water molecules. Carbohydrates are a source of energy for the body. They include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. In their basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides.

carbo-; → hydrate.

chlorate
  کلرات   
klorât (#)

Fr.: chlorate   

1) A negative ion, ClO3- derived from chloric acid.
2) Any salt of chloric acid.

From chlor-, → chlorine, + → -ate.

clathrate
  کلاترات   
klâtrât

Fr.: clathrate   

A chemical substance in which a molecule of one compound fills a cavity within the crystal lattice of another compound. An example is clathrate hydrate, a special type of gas hydrate in which small molecules (typically gases) are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Large amounts of methane have been discovered both in permafrost formations and under the ocean floor. Similarly oceans contain large quantities of trapped CO2, which dissociate when the temperature rises sufficiently.

From L. clathratus, p.p. of clathrarer "to fit with bars," from clathra "bars, lattice," from Gk. kleithron " bar," from kleiein "to close."

commensurate
  هم مسا   
hammasâ

Fr.: commensurable   

(adj.) Of the same size, extent, or duration as another; proportionate.

L.L. commensuratus, from → com- "together, with" + mensuratus, p.p. of mensurare "to measure," from menusra "measure."

Hammasâ, from ham- "together," → com- + masâ "size, greatness," from Mid.Pers. masây, masâk "size," Av. masah- "size, greatness, length," maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," mazan- "greatness, majesty," mazišta- "greatest," cf. Skt. mah-, mahant-, Gk. megas, L. magnus; PIE *meg- "great."

commensurate orbits
  مدارها‌ی ِ هم مسا   
madârhâ-ye hammasâ

Fr.: orbites commensurables   

Of two bodies orbiting around a common barycenter, when the orbital period of one is an exact fraction, for example one-half or two-thirds, of the other.

commensurate; → orbit.

concentrate
  ۱) هم‌مرکزیدن، هم‌مرکز کردن؛ ۲) دبزیدن   
1) hammarkazidan, hammarkaz kardan; 2) dabzidan

Fr.: concentrer   

1) To bring or draw to a common center or point of union.
2) Of a solution, to make denser, stronger, or purer, esp. by the removal or reduction of liquid.

Verb with p.p. → concentrated.

concentrated
  ۱) هم‌مرکزیده؛ ۲) دبز   
1) hammarkazidé; 2) dabz

Fr.: concentré   

1) Gathered together closely.
2) Made denser, purer.

Past participle of → concentrate.

1) Past participle of hammarkazidan, → concentrate.
2) Dabz "dense, thick, concentrated, coarse," variants dafzak and gabz; Av. bəzuuant- "thick, dense," bazah- "thickness, denseness;" Baluchi baz "thick, coarse;" Zazaki vezdin "oily, greasy" Ossetic bæzgin "thick, dense;" cf. Skt. bamh "to thicken, become dense;" Gk. pakhos "thickness, density;" PIE base bhengh- "to become/make dense, thick" (see Cheung 2007).

conglomerate
  هاگلمیدن   
hâgolemidan

Fr.: conglomérer   

1) Anything composed of heterogeneous materials or elements.
2) Geology: A sedimentary rock made of rounded rock fragments (greater than two millimeters in diameter), such as pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, in a finer-grained matrix.

From L. conglomeratus, p.p. of conglomerare "to roll together," from → com- "together" + glomerare "to gather into a ball," from glomus (genitive glomeris) "a ball," globus "globe;" PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

Hâgolemidan, from hâ- "together," → com-, + golem "glomus," → agglomerate.

crater
  ۱، ۲) لاوک، کندال؛ ۳) جام   
1, 2) lâvak, kandâl; 3) Jâm

Fr.: 1, 2) cratère; 3) Coupe   

1) A bowl-like depression on the rigid surface of a planet, satellite, or asteroid usually caused by the high-speed impact of a colliding object.
2) A bowl-shaped cavity at the mouth of a volcano.
3) The Cup. A small → constellation with faint stars, in the Southern Hemisphere, that lies next to → Hydra, at about 11h 20m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Crt; genitive: Crateris.

From Gk. krater "a wide, two-handled bowl for mixing wine with water," from kerannynai "to mix;" PIE base *kere- "to mix, confuse."

Lâvak "a large wooden bowl for kneading dough."
Kandâl "cavity, pit" in Qâeni, from kand- past tense stem of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan, O.Pers./Av. kan- "to dig," Skt. khan- "to dig") + -al, → -al.
Jâm "cup, chalice, goblet, bowl," Mid.Pers. jâm "vessel, goblet; glass," Av. yama- "glass, glass vessel," yâmô.pacika- "baked glass;" related to Skt. camasa- "a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking Soma, kind of flat dish or cup?"

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