corotation resonance bâzâvâyi-ye ham-carxeš Fr.: résonance de corotation That condition of a → galactic disk at an orbital radius in which the → angular velocity of the disk equals the → pattern speed. It is significant that the spiral wave pattern rotates as a rigid body (Ω_{P} = const), whereas the galactic disk rotates differentially (Ω is a function of galactocentric distance r). The distance r_{C} at which the two angular velocities coincide (Ω(r_{C}) = Ω_{P}) is referred to as the → corotation radius. The corotation resonance and its position within the galaxy is one of the fundamental properties of a spiral galaxy. → corotation; → resonance. |
inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad-e daruni Fr.: résonance de Lindblad interne A → Lindblad resonance expressed by: Ω_{p} = Ω - κ/m. → inner; → Lindblad resonance. |
Landau resonance bâzâvâyi-ye Landau Fr.: résonance de Landau For parallel propagating → electrostatic waves in a → plasma, the → resonance which occurs when the particle velocity equals the parallel phase velocity of the wave. → Landau damping; → damping. |
Laplace resonance bâzâvâyi-ye Laplace Fr.: résonance de Laplace An → orbital resonance that makes a 4:2:1 period ratio among three bodies in orbit. The → Galilean satellites → Io, → Europa, → Ganymede are in the Laplace resonance that keeps their orbits elliptical. This interaction prevents the orbits of the satellites from becoming perfectly circular (due to tidal interactions with Jupiter), and therefore permits → tidal heating of Io and Europa. For every four orbits of Io, Europa orbits twice and Ganymede orbits once. Io cannot keep one side exactly facing Jupiter and with the varying strengths of the tides because of its elliptical orbit, Io is stretched and twisted over short time periods. This commensurability was first pointed out by Pierre-Simon Laplace, → Laplace; → resonance. |
Lindblad resonance bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad Fr.: résonance de Lindblad A kinematic resonance hypothesized to explain the existence of galactic → spiral arms. It occurs when the frequency at which a star encounters the spiral → density wave is a multiple of its → epicyclic frequency. Orbital resonances occur at the location in the disk where Ω_{p} = Ω ± κ/m, where Ω_{p} is → pattern speed, κ → epicyclic frequency, and m an integer representing the number of spiral arms. The minus sign corresponds to the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and the plus sign to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR). The corotation resonance corresponds to Ω_{p} = Ω. In general, the Lindblad resonances are defined for two spiral arms (m = 2), and low order. There are other less important resonances corresponding to higher m values. These resonances tend to increase the object's orbital eccentricity and to cause its longitude of periapse to line up in phase with the perturbing force. Lindblad resonances drive spiral density waves both in galaxies (where stars are subject to forcing by the spiral arms themselves) and in Saturn's rings (where ring particles are subject to forcing by Saturn's moons). After the originator of the model, Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), a Swedish astronomer, who made important contributions to the study of the rotation of the Galaxy; → resonance. |
Lorentz resonance bâzâvâyi-ye Lorentz Fr.: résonance de Lorentz A repeated electromagnetic force on an electrically charged ring particle, nudging the particle in the same direction and at the same point in its orbit. Lorentz resonances are especially important for tiny ring particles whose charge-to-mass ratio is high and whose orbit periods are a simple integer fraction of the rotational period of the planet's magnetic field (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). |
magnetic resonance bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi (#) Fr.: résonance magnétique A phenomenon exhibited by certain atoms whereby they absorb energy at specific (resonant) frequencies when subjected to alternating magnetic fields. |
natural resonance bâzâvâyi-ye zâstâri Fr.: résonance naturelle A resonance such that the period of the driving force is the same as the natural period of the system. |
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi-ye haste-yi Fr.: résonance magnétique nucléaire An analysis technique applied to some atomic nuclei that have the property to behave as small magnets and respond to the application of a magnetic field by absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation. When nuclei which have a magnetic moment (such as ^{1}H, ^{13}C, ^{29}Si, or ^{31}P) are submitted to a constant magnetic field and at the same time to a radio-frequency alternating magnetic field, the nuclear magnetic moment is excited to higher energy states if the alternating field has the specific resonance frequency. This technique is especially used in spectroscopic studies of molecular structure and in particular provides valuable information in medicine that can be used to deduce the structure of organic compounds. |
orbital resonance bâzâvâyi-ye madâri Fr.: résonance orbitale The situation in which two orbiting objects exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other and therefore their orbital frequencies are related by a ratio of two small → integers. Orbital resonance often results in an unstable interaction in which bodies exchange momentum and shift orbits until the resonance disappears. The resonance increases the eccentricity until a body approaches a planet too closely and the body is slung away. |
outer Lindblad resonance (OLP) bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad-e boruni Fr.: résonance de Lindblad externe A → Lindblad resonance expressed by: Ω_{p} = Ω + κ/m. → outer; → Lindblad resonance. |
resonance bâzâvâyi (#) Fr.: résonance 1) The state of a mechanical system in which the amplitude of oscillation is increased
when it is subjected to stimulus from another source at or near its own natural
frequency. Resonance, from M.Fr. resonance, from L. resonantia "echo," from resonare "to resound," from re- "again, back" + sonare "to sound." Bâzâvâyi, from bâz- "again, back," → re-, + âvâ "voice, sound" (related to âvâz "voice, sound, song," bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word;" Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak") + -yi noun suffix. |
resonance capture gir-oft-e bâzâvâyi Fr.: capture résonante Capture by an atomic nucleus of a particle whose energy is equal to one of the energy levels of the nucleus. |
resonance frequency basâmad-e bâzâvâyi Fr.: fréquence de résonance The frequency at which a system is in → resonance. |
resonance line xatt-e bâzâvâyi Fr.: raie de résonance For a particular atom, the spectral line corresponding to the longest wavelength arising from a transition between the ground state and an excited state. |
resonance particle zarre-e bâzâvâyi Fr.: particule de résonance A hadronic particle which exists for only a very brief time (10^{-23} seconds) before decaying into hadrons; also called resonance. The existence of a resonance cannot be observed directly; it can only be inferred from studying the longer-lived products of its decay. |
resonance region neutron notron-e nâhiye-ye bâzâvâyi Fr.: neutron dans la région de résonance A neutron with an energy between 1 eV and 0.01 MeV. |