An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 41 Search : scale
Beaufort scale
  مرپل ِ بوفورت   
marpel-e Beaufort

Fr.: échelle de Beaufort   

A system for estimating and reporting wind speeds which has 13 standardized categories and associated descriptions. The Beaufort scale ranges from 0 for complete calm to 12 for a cyclone. In this scale, the wind speed (in km/h) equals 3B1.5, where B is the Beaufort number of the wind. The scale was originally devised for use at sea but has subsequently been modified for use over land.

Named after Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), who introduced the first version of the system in 1805; → scale.

Celsius scale
  مرپل ِ سلسیوس   
marpel-e Celsiu

Fr.: échelle de Celsius   

The official name of the centigrade temperature scale with the → ice point as 0° and the → boiling point of water as 100°. The Celsius scale uses a degree (the unit of temperature) which has the same magnitude as the degree on the → Kelvin scale: TC = TK - 273.15. See also → Fahrenheit scale, → Rankine scale, → Reaumur scale.

In honor of Anders Celsius (1701-1744), Swedish astronomer, originator of the first centigrade temperature scale. However, in his original scale Celsius had 100° for the ice point and 0° for the steam point; → scale.

cosmic distance scale
  مرپل ِ دورای ِ کیهانی   
marpel-e durâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: échelle des distances cosmiques   

Measurement of the distances to the farthest objects in the Universe based on a bootstrapping series of methods, each applicable to more distant objects, and each dependent on the previous methods.

cosmic; → distance; → scale.

cosmic scale factor
  کروند ِ مرپل ِ کیهانی   
karvand-e marpal-e keyhâni

Fr.: facteur d'échelle cosmologique   

A quantity, denoted a(t), which describes how the distances between any two galaxies change with time. The physical distance d(t) between two points in the Universe can be expressed as d(t) = R(t).x, where R(t) is the → scale factor and x the → comoving distance between the points. The cosmic scale factor is related to the → redshift, z, by: 1 + z = R(t0)/R(t1), where t0 is the present time and t1 is the time at emission of the radiation. The quantity (1 + z) gives the factor by which the → Universe has expanded in size between t1 and t0. It is also related to the → Hubble parameter by H(t) = R.(t)/R(t), where R.(t) is the time → derivative of the scale factor. In an → expanding Universe the scale factor increases with time. See also the → Friedmann equation.

cosmic; → scale; → factor.

Danjon scale
  مرپل ِ دانژون   
marpel-e danjon

Fr.: échelle de Danjon   

A scale to evaluate as exactly as possible the darkening degree of a total → lunar eclipse. The five steps of the scale run from 0 (extremely dark, invisible Moon) to 4 (extremely bright, the eclipse having a very weak effect on the Moon's visibility). The darkening at a lunar eclipse is determined to a great extent by the transparency of the terrestrial atmosphere, which is affected by clouds and the dust from the volcanic eruptions (M.S.: SDE).

Named after André Danjon, who set up the scale, → Danjon astrolabe; → scale.

dynamical time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ توانیک   
marpel-e zamâni-ye tavânik

Fr.: échelle de temps dynamique   

1) The characteristic time it takes a protostellar cloud to collapse if the pressure supporting it against gravity were suddenly removed; also known as the → free-fall time.
2) → crossing time for a stellar system like a galaxy.

dynamical; → time-scale.

Eddington-Sweet time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ ادینگتون-سوییت   
marpel-e zamâni-ye Eddington-Sweet

Fr.: échelle de temps d'Eddington-Sweet   

The time required for the redistribution of → angular momentum due to → meridional circulation. The Eddington-Sweet time for a uniformly → rotating star is expressed as: τES = τKH . GM / (Ω2 R3), where τKH is the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale, R, M, and L designate the radius, mass, and luminosity respectively, Ω the → angular velocity, and G the → gravitational constant. The Eddington-Sweet time scale can be approximated by τES≅ τKH / χ, where χ is the ratio of the → centrifugal force to → gravity. For the Sun, χ ≅ 10-5 resulting in an Eddington-Sweet time scale which is too long (1012 years), i.e. unimportant. In contrast, for a rotating → massive star  χ is not so much less than 1. Hence the Eddington-Sweet circulation is very important in massive stars.

Named after the prominent British astrophysicist Arthur S. Eddington (1882-1944), who was the first to suggest these currents (in The Internal Constitution of the Stars, Dover Pub. Inc., New York, 1926) and P. A. Sweet who later quantified them (1950, MNRAS 110, 548); → time scale.

Einstein time-scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ اینشتین   
marpel-e zamâni-ye Einstein

Fr.: échelle de temps d'Einstein   

The time during which a → microlensing event occurs. It is given by the equation tE = RE/v, where RE is the → Einstein radius, v is the magnitude of the relative transverse velocity between source and lens projected onto the lens plane. The characteristic time-scale of → microlensing events is about 25 days.

Einstein; → time-scale.

evolutionary time scale
  زمان-مرپل ِ فرگشت   
zamân-marpel-e fargašt

Fr.: échelle de temps d'évolution   

The characteristic time it takes an evolving astronomical object to pass from a step to another.

evolutionary; → time scale.

Fahrenheit scale
  مرپل ِ فارنهایت   
marpel-e Fahrenhait

Fr.: échelle de Fahrenheit   

A temperature scale (°F) in which the → freezing point of → water is 32 degrees and the → boiling point is 212 degrees; the points are placed 180 degrees apart. It converts to the → Celsius scale by the formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32). See also → Kelvin scale, → Rankine scale, → Reaumur scale.

Developed by the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736); → scale.

galactic-scale outflow
  استچان با مرپل ِ کهکشانی   
ostacân bâ marpel-e kahkešâni

Fr.: flot à l'échelle galactique   

The enormous amounts of → mass and → energy released from active galaxies into the → intergalactic medium. → Supermassive black holes, believed to exist at the centres of active galaxies (→ active galaxy), → accrete matter and liberate huge quantities of energy. The energy output is often observed as → active galactic nuclei (AGN) outflows in a wide variety of forms, e.g. → collimated  → relativistic jets and/or huge overpressured cocoons in → radio, → blueshifted broad → absorption lines in the → ultraviolet and → optical, → warm absorbers and ultrafast outflows in → X-rays, and → molecular gas in → far infrared. Moreover, the processes of → star formation and → supernova explosions release mass/energy into the surroundings. This → stellar feedback heats up, ionizes and drives gas outward, often generating large-scale outflows/→ winds. Galactic outflows are observed at low redshifts reaching a velocity as large as 1000 km s-1 and at high-z up to z ~ 5, sometimes extending over distances of 60-130 kpc. Galactic-scale outflows may be a primary driver of galaxy evolution through the removal of cool gas from star-forming regions to a galaxy's → halo or beyond.

galactic; → scale; → outflow.

image scale
  مرپل ِ تصویر   
marpel-e tasvir

Fr.: échelle de l'image   

The quantity that relates the length on the image to the angular or physical separations on the sky.

image; → scale.

Jeans scale
  مرپل ِ جینز   
marpel-e Jeans

Fr.: échelle de Jeans   

Same as → Jeans length.

Jeans; → scale.

Kardashev scale
  مرپل ِ کارداشف   
marpel-e Kardashev

Fr.: échelle de Kardashev   

A way of measuring a civilization's technological advancement based upon how much usable energy it has at its disposal. The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev (who was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals). It has three base classes, each with an energy disposal level: Type I, Type II, and Type III. Type I designates a civilization that is capable of controlling the total energy of its home planet (1016 watts). Type II is an interstellar civilization, capable of harnessing the total energy output of a star (1026 W). And Type III represents a galactic civilization, capable of inhabiting and harnessing the energy of an entire galaxy (1036 W). The scale has since been expanded by another four. Type 0 is civilization that harnesses the energy of its home planet, but not to its full potential. The Earth civilization is currently at about 0.73 on the Kardashev scale.

The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev (1932-); → scale.

Kelvin scale
  مرپل ِ کلوین   
marpel-e Kelvin

Fr.: échelle de Kelvin   

A temperature scale, redefined in 1954, in which the zero point is equivalent to -273.16 °C. This fundamental fixed point, based on the → triple point of water, is considered to be the lowest possible temperature of anything in the Universe. Also known as the absolute temperature scale.

kelvin (K); → scale.

Kolmogorov scale
  مرپل ِ کولموگوروف   
marpel-e Kolmogorov

Fr.: échelle de Kolmogorov   

Length scale of → turbulent flow below which the effects of molecular → viscosity are non-negligible.

Kolmogorov constant; → scale.

large scale
  بزرگ-مرپل   
bozorg-marpel

Fr.: grande échelle   

1) A scale representing measures that significantly override the usual ones of the same kind.
2) In meteorology, a scale in which the curvature of the earth is not negligible.

large; → scale.

large-scale structure
  ساختار ِ بزرگ-مرپل   
sâxtâr-e bozorg-marpel

Fr.: structure à grandes échelles   

The distribution of galaxies and other forms of mass on large distance scales, covering hundreds of millions of → light-years.

large; → scale; → structure.

logarithmic scale
  مرپل ِ لگاریتمی   
marpel-e logâritmi

Fr.: échelle logarithmique   

A scale of measurement in which an increase of one unit represents a tenfold increase in the quantity measured (for common logarithms)

logarithmic; → scale.

magnitude scale
  مرپل ِ برز‌ها   
marpel-e borzhâ

Fr.: échelle de magnitudes   

A scale for measuring and comparing the brightness of astronomical objects.

magnitude; → scale.

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