Fr.: cisaillement cosmique, ~ gravitationnel
Fr.: cisaillement keplerien
Shearing motion of an ensemble of particles, each on a nearly circular, → Keplerian orbit. → Orbital velocity decreases as orbital radius increases, yielding shear. Viscous drag on such shear, due to ring-particle collisions, plays a key role in ring processes (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).
1) karn; 2) karnidan
Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler
1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."
1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci
"a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; "
Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;"
Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut,"
krpāna- "sword, knife;"
Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;"
PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Fr.: module de cisaillement
The ratio of the applied → stress to the change in shape (→ strain) produced in an → elastic body. The bigger this quantity the more rigid is the material since for the same change in strain a bigger force is needed. Also called → shear modulus.
Fr.: turbulence de cisaillement
A type of → instability occurring within a → fluid as a result of the → shear caused by → differential rotation. The condition for shear instability is expressed by the → Richardson criterion. Shear turbulence is likely the most efficient → mixing process in stellar → radiative zones.
Fr.: onde de cisaillement
A wave that occurs in an elastic medium with the disturbances perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Shear waves do not propagate through a fluid. Also called S-wave, secondary wave, and transverse wave.