An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 17 Search : square
chi-square distribution
  واباژش ِ خی-دو   
vâbâžeš-e Xi-do

Fr.: loi du chi-deux   

A probability density function, denoted χ2, that gives the distribution of the sum of squares of k independent random variables, each being drawn from the normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance. The integer k is the number of degrees of freedom. The distribution has a positive skew; the skew is less with more degrees of freedom. As degrees of freedom increase, the chi-square distribution approaches a normal distribution. The most common application is chi-square tests for goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one. If χ2 = 0 the agreement is perfect.

Chi Gk. letter of alphabet; → square; → distribution.

Vâbâžeš, → distribution; do, → two.

inverse square law
  قانون ِ توان ِ دوی ِ وارون، قانون ِ چاروش ِ وارون   
qânun-e tavân-e do-ye vârun, qânun-e câruš-e vârun

Fr.: loi en carré inverse   

A force law that applies to the → gravitational and → electromagnetic forces in which the magnitude of the force decreases in proportion to the inverse of the square of the → distance.

inverse; → square; → law.

least squares
  کوچکترین چاروش‌ها   
kucaktarin cârušhâ

Fr.: moindres carrés   

Any statistical procedure that involves minimizing the sum of squared differences.

least; → square.

least-squares fit
  سز ِ کوچکترین چاروش‌ها   
saz-e kucaktarin cârušhâ

Fr.: ajustement moindres carrées   

A fit through data points using least squares.

least squares; → fit.

method of least squares
  روش ِ کمترین چاروش‌ها   
raveš-e kamtarin cârušhâ

Fr.: méthode des moindres carrés   

A method of fitting a curve to data points so as to minimize the sum of the squares of the distances of the points from the curve.

method; → least squares.

perfect square
  چاروش ِ فرساخت   
câruš-e farsâxt

Fr.: carré parfait   

An → integer of the form n2, where n is a → positive number. In other words, a → perfect power when k = 2.

perfect; → square.

root mean square (rms)
  ریشه‌ی ِ چاروشی ِ میانگین، ~ ِ دوم ِ ~   
riše-ye câruši-ye miyângin, ~ dovom-e ~

Fr.: valeur quadratique moyenne   

The square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the numbers in a given set.

root; → mean; → square.

root-mean-square error
  ایرنگ ِ ریشه‌ی ِ چاروشی ِ میانگین، ~ ~ ِ دوم ِ ~   
irang-e riše-ye câruši-ye miyângin, ~ ~ dovom-e ~


The square root of the second moment corresponding to the frequency function of a random variable.

root; → mean; → square; → error.

root-mean-square value
  ارزش ِ ریشه‌ی ِ چاروشی ِ میانگین   
arzeš-e riše-ye câruši-ye miyângin

Fr.: écart quadratique moyen, écart type   

Statistics: The square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviation of observed values from their arithmetic mean.

root; → mean; → square; → deviation.

  چاروش، چهارگوش   
câruš, cahârguš

Fr.: carré   

1) A rectangle having all four sides of equal length.
2) The second power of a quantity, expressed as a2 = a × a, where a is the quantity. → inverse square law.

M.E., from O.Fr. esquire "a square, squareness," from V.L. *exquadra, from *exquadrare "to square," from L. → ex- "out" + quadrare "make square," from quadrus "a square," from quattuorfour.

Câruš, from Av. caθruša- "four sides (of a four-sided figure)", from caθru- "four," Mod.Pers. cahâr, câr "four" + uša- "angle," Mod.Pers. guš, gušé.

square degree
  درجه‌ی ِ چاروش   
daraje-ye câruš

Fr.: degré carré   

A solid angle whose cone is a tetrahedral pyramid with an angle between its edges equal to 1°. 1 square degree = 3.046 x 10-4 sr = 2.424 x 10-5 solid angle of a complete sphere.

square; → degree.

Square Kilometer Array (SKA)

Fr.: SKA   

An international project to construct a highly sensitive radio interferometer array operating between 0.15 and 20 GHz with an effective collecting area of one square kilometer. The number of individual telescopes will be 2000 to 3000. SKA will have a sensitivity 100 times higher than that of today's best radio telescopes and an angular resolution < 0.1 arcsec at 1.4 GHz. The site will be selected in 2012 and early science with Phase 1 is scheduled for from 2016 on. See also the SKA homepage.

square; → kilometer; → array.

square matrix
  ماتریس ِ چاروش   
matris-e câruš

Fr.: matrice carée   

A → matrix with equal numbers of → rows and → columns (i.e., an n × n matrix).

square; → matrix.

Square of Pegasus
  چهارگوش ِ پگاسوس   
Chahârguš-e Pegasus

Fr.: Carrée de Pégase   

A large → asterism of four stars, approximately square in shape, in the northern sky. Three of the stars, → Markab, → Scheat, and → Algenib, belong to the constellation → Pegasus. The fourth, → Alpheratz, was lost to Pegasus when the constellation boundaries were formalised, and now lies just within the borders of → Andromeda.

square; → Pegasus.

Chahârguš, → tetragon; → Pegasus.

square root
  ریشه‌ی ِ چاروش   
riše-ye câruš

Fr.: racine carée   

Quantity which when multiplied by itself produces another quantity.

square; → root.

square wave
  موج ِ چاروش   
mowj-e câruš

Fr.: onde carrée   

An oscillation which alternatively assumes, for equal lengths of time, one or two fixed values.

square; → wave.

squaring the square
  چاروشش ِ چاروش   
cârušeš-e câruš

Fr.: quadrature du carré   

The mathematical problem of subdividing a square into a number of smaller squares, all of different sizes.

square; → square.