An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 30 Search : table
  نیاویدنی، نیاوش‌پذیر   
niyâvidani, niyâveš-pazir

Fr.: adaptable   

Capable of adapting or of being adapted.

adapt + → -able.

Alfonsine Tables
  زیج ِ آلفونسو   
zij-e Alfonso

Fr.: Tables alfonsines   

A set of tables created in Toledo, under Alfonso X, el sabio, king of Castile and Léon (1252 to 1284) to correct the anomalies in the → Toledan Tables. The starting point of the Alfonsine Tables is January 1, 1252, the year of king's coronation (1 June). The original Spanish version of the tables is lost, but a set of canons (introductory instructions) for planetary tables are extant. They are written by Isaac ben Sid and Judah ben Moses ha-Cohen, two of the most active collaborators of Alfonso X. The Alfonsine Tables were the most widely used astronomical tables in the Middle Ages and had an enormous impact on the development of European astronomy from the 13th to 16th century. They were replaced by Erasmus Reinhold's → Prutenic Tables, based on Copernican models, that were first published in 1551.The Latin version of the Alfonsine Tables first appeared in Paris around 1320, where a revision was undertaken by John of Lignères and John of Murs, accompanied by a number of canons for their use written by John of Saxony. There is a controversy as to the exact relationship of these tables with the work commissioned by the Spanish king.

After the Spanish monarch Alfonso X (1221-1284); → table.

astronomical table
  جدول ِ اختری   
jadval-e axtari

Fr.: table astronomique   

One of a set of tables giving parameters used for calculations of positions of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets in particular in pre-telescopic astronomy. The oldest known astronomical tables are those of Ptolemy. In Modern astronomy it is usually replaced by the term → ephemeris. Same as → zij. See also → Toledan Tables, → Alfonsine Tables.

astronomical; → table.

circumstellar habitable zone
  زنار ِ زیست پذیر ِ پیراستاره‌ای   
zonâr-e zistpazir-e pirâsetâreyi

Fr.: zone habitable circumstellaire   

A zone around a star within which a planet can have temperatures that permit liquid water, depending on the luminosity of the star and the distance of the planet from it.

circumstellar; → habitable zone.


Fr.: exécutable   

1) Computers: Describing a computer program that is able to be run. → executable program.
2) Computer: A file containing a program that will run when it is opened. → executable file.

execute; → -able.

executable file
  پرونده‌ی ِ زکاردنی   
parvande-ye zokârdani

Fr.: fichier exécutable   

A type of binary file designed to be directly executed by a computer system. → executable program.

executable; → file.

executable program
  برنامه‌ی ِ زکاردنی   
barnâme-ye zokârdani

Fr.: programme exécutable   

A program that can run on a → computer. It uses an → executable file.

executable; → program.

Galactic habitable zone
  زنار ِ زیست‌پذیر ِ کهکشان   
zonâr-e zistpazir-e kahkešân

Fr.: zone habitable galactique   

A region of the Galaxy whose boundaries are set by its calm and safe environment and access to the chemical materials necessary for building terrestrial planets similar to the Earth. → circumstellar habitable zone; → habitable zone.

galactic, → habitable; → zone.

habitable zone (HZ)
  زُنار ِ زیست‌پذیر   
zonâr-e zistpazir

Fr.: zone habitable   

A zone around a star where the temperature would be in the range 0-100 °C to sustain liquid water on the surface of rocky planets (or sufficiently large moons). Water is thought to be a necessary component to the creation and evolution of Earth-type life. This zone depends on the parent star's luminosity and distance; it will be farther from hotter stars. A more accurate definition of HZ needs to include other factors, such as orbital → eccentricity, heat sources other than stellar irradiation, and atmospheric properties. Same as → circumstellar habitable zone; → ecosphere.

Habitable, from O.Fr. habitation, from L. habitare "to live, dwell," frequentative of habere "to have, to hold, possess," from PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize, take, hold, have, give, receive" (cf. Mod.Pers. gereftan "to take, seize;" Mid.Pers. griftan; O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize;" Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving;" M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly"); → zone.

Zonâr, → zone; zistpazir, from zist, → life, + pazir "admitting, accepting, having," → -able.

  ریگن‌بردنی، دریگیدنی   
riganbordani, darigidani

Fr.: dont on peut hériter, qui peut hériter   


inherit; → -able.

  ریگن‌بردنی، دریگیدنی   
riganbordani, darigidani

Fr.: dont on peut hériter, qui peut hériter   


inherit; → -able.

  ریگن‌بردنی، دریگیدنی   
riganbordani, darigidani

Fr.: dont on peut hériter, qui peut hériter   

1) Capable of being inherited.
2) Capable of inheriting; qualified to inherit (

inherit; → -able.

Mendeleev's table
  جدول ِ مندلیف   
jadval-e Mendeleev (#)

Fr.: tableau de Mendeleïev   

See → periodic table.

periodic table.

metastable state
  حالت ِ متاپایدار   
hâlat-e matâpâydâr

Fr.: état métastable   

An excited state in an atom, which is at the origin of the spectral lines called → forbidden lines. The time duration of the excited state being relatively long, under laboratory conditions the atom cannot pass directly to the ground state by emitting radiation. In the extremely rarefied interstellar medium, however, such highly improbable transitions do occur.

meta-; → stable; → state.

periodic table
  جدول ِ دوره‌ای   
jadval-e dowreyi (#)

Fr.: tableau périodique   

An arrangement of the → chemical elements in order of their → atomic numbers in such a way as to demonstrate periodic similarities and trends in physical and chemical properties. Elements with similar properties are arranged in the same column (called a group), and elements with the same number of → valence electrons, or number of electrons in the outer shell, are arranged in the same row (called a period). Under the latest recommendations from IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the groups are labelled 1 to 18 from left to right (1988, Pure and Applied Chemistry 60, 431). Also called Mendeleev's table.
The periodic table was introduced by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) in 1869, who originally arranged them in order of their → atomic weights. Using the table, it was possible for Mendeleev to correct some of the atomic weights (e.g. that of beryllium) and to predict the properties of a number of elements yet to be discovered (e.g. gallium, scandium, and germanium). The British physicist Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) showed that the loss of an → alpha particle reduces the nuclear charge by two and hence lowers the atomic number by two and the position of the element in the periodic table by two groups.

periodic; → table.

Prutenic Tables
  زیج ِ پروسی   
zij-e Prusi

Fr.: Tables pruténiques   

A set of astronomical tables (→ ephemeris) created in 1551 by Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553), professor of astronomy at Wittenberg, indicating the positions of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets on the basis of the → Copernican model of heliocentric solar system. They superseded the → Alfonsine Tables, but since circular orbits were used, they were no more accurate than those tables. They were themselves replaced by the → Rudolphine Tables.

From original L. title Tabulae prutenicae "Prussian Tables," such named because Albert I, Duke of Prussia, supported Reinhold and financed the printing; → table; → zij.


Fr.: réfutable   

Capable or being refuted.

refute; → -able.


Fr.: respectable   

Worthy of respect or esteem.

respect; → -able.

Rudolphine Tables
  زیج ِ رودولفی   
zij-e Rudolfi

Fr.: Tables rudolphines   

A set of astronomical tables created in 1627 by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) based on observations by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). These tables allowed Kepler to derive the three laws of planetary motions bearing his name (→ Kelpler's laws). These are the first tables in which → atmospheric refraction has been taken into account. They overruled the → Prutenic Tables.

From the L. title Tabulae Rudolphinae, in memory of Rudolf II (1552-1612), king of Hungary and Bohemia, and Holy Roman Emperor; → table.

pâydâr (#)

Fr.: stable   

Physics: 1) Having the ability to react to a disturbing force by maintaining or regaining position or condition.
2) Incapable of becoming a different isotope or element by radioactive decay.

M.E., from O.Fr. estable, from L. stabilis "firm, steadfast," literally "able to stand," from stem of stare "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand").

Pâydâr "stable, firm" literally "having feet," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, hold, maintain, possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

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