An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 20 Search : year
anomalistic year
  سال ِ پیراهوری   
sâl-e pirâhuri

Fr.: année anomalistique   

Anomalistic from → anomaly.

Pirâhuri from pirâhur, → perihelion.

Besselian year
  سال ِ بسلی   
sâl-e Beseli

Fr.: année besselienne   

The period taken for the right ascension of the mean Sun to increase by 24 hours. The starting point is when the mean Sun's longitude is 280°, corresponding roughly to January 1. It is virtually the same as the tropical year.

Besselian; → year.

calendar year
  سال ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   
sâl-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri

Fr.: année du calendrier   

The time interval between the new year's day in a given calendar system and the day before the following new year's day. In the Gregorian system the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. In the Iranian calendar it begins on Farvardin 1, the day closest to the spring equinox and ends on Esfand 29 or 30.

calendar; → year.

eclipse year
  سال ِ گرفتی   
sâl-e gerefti

Fr.: année des éclipses   

The interval of time (346.620 03 days) between two successive passages of the Sun through the same node of the Moon's orbit. It takes less than a solar year to complete an eclipse year because the Moon's orbit and the lunar nodes are slowly regressing.

eclipse; → year.

embolismic year
  سال ِ بهیزکی   
sâl-e behizaki (#)

Fr.: année embolismique   

In ancient calendars, a year that contains an → embolismic month.

embolismic month; → year.

Galactic year
  سال ِ کهکشانی   
sâl-e kahkešâni (#)

Fr.: année galactique   

The time taken for the Sun to revolve once around the center of the Milky Way, amounting to about 220 million years.

galactic; → year.

Julian year
  سال ِ یولیانی   
sâl-e yuliyâni (#)

Fr.: année julienne   

A period of 365.25 days adopted in the Julian calendar for the length of the year.

Julian calendar; &rarr ;year.

leap year
  سال ِ اندرهلی   
sâl-e andarheli

Fr.: année bissextile   

In solar calendars the year that contains 366 days, instead of 365, in order to keep the calendar in pace with the real solar time.

leap; → year.

light year
  نور-سال، سال ِ نوری   
nur-sâl (#), sâl-e nuri (#)

Fr.: année-lumière   

light-year

light; → year.

light-year
  نور-سال، سال ِ نوری   
nur-sâl (#), sâl-e nuri (#)

Fr.: année-lumière   

The distance that light travels in one year at about 300,000 km per second, i.e. 9.5 x 1012 km. It is equal to about 63,000 → astronomical units. See also → parsec.

light; → year.

lunar year
  سال ِ مانگی   
sâl-e mângi

Fr.: année lunaire   

A year based solely on the Moon's motion, containing 12 synodic months, each of 29.5306 days, that is a year of 354.3672 days. Used by Hebrews, Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs.

lunar; → year.

ordinary year
  سال ِ شونیک   
sâl-e šunik

Fr.: année ordinaire   

A → calendar year that contains 365 days and therefore is not a → leap year.

ordinary; → year.

Platonic year
  سال ِ پلاتونی، ~ افلاتونی   
sâl-e Plâtoni, ~ Aflâtuni

Fr.: année platonique   

The time required for a complete revolution of the Earth's pole on the celestial sphere as the result of → precession. A Platonic year is equal to 25 800 years.

Of or pertaining to Gk. philosopher Plato, from Gk. Platon "broad-shouldered," from platys "broad." → year.

sidereal year
  سال ِ اختری   
sâl-e axtari (#)

Fr.: année sidérale   

The interval between two successive passages of the Sun, in its apparent → annual motion around the → celestial sphere, through a particular point relative to stars. It is equal to 365.256356 days for the J2000.0 epoch and is 20m 24.5s longer than the → tropical year.

sidereal; → year.

solar year
  سال ِ خورشیدی   
sâl-e xoršidi (#)

Fr.: année solaire   

The period of time required for the Earth to make one complete revolution around the Sun. Solar year is a general term for: → tropical year, → vernal equinox year, and → autumnal equinox year, which have different lengths.

solar; → year.

Sothic year
  سال ِ تیشتری   
sâl-e Tištari

Fr.: année sothique   

The Egyptian year of 365 days and 6 hours, as distinguished from them Egyptian vague year, which contained 365 days.

From Fr. sothique, from Gk. Sothis, an Egyptian name of Sirius; → year.

Tištari, of or pertaining to Tištarserius; sâl, → year.

tropical year
  سال ِ هورگردی   
sâl-e hurgardi

Fr.: année tropique   

The interval during which the Sun's mean longitude, referred to the mean equinox of date, increases by 360 degrees. Its mean length for the epoch J2000.0 is 365.24217879 real solar days (approximately 365.2422 days). This concept of tropical year, adopted by the International Astronomical Union at its General Assembly in Dublin, September 1955, has often been confounded with the → vernal-equinox year. In fact the mean period between two successive true vernal equinoxes is different from the tropical year. This period, which is equal to 365.24236460 solar days (about 365.2424 days), is the real mean length of the year in the Iranian calendar. The difference between the two year lengths is due to the fact that the Earth's orbital velocity around the Sun is not uniform, since the orbit is an ellipse. At the perihelion of its orbit the Earth is closest to the Sun, and therefore moves faster than average, while at aphelion, when it is farthest away from the Sun, it moves slower. Therefore the interval between two successive vernal equinoxes is not the same as the period between two successive summer solstices. In fact the tropical year does not depend on a specific origin for the annual apparent motion of the Sun. For detailed discussion see: A concise review of the Iranian calendar.

tropical; → year.

vague year
  سال ِ گردان، ~ گرنگ   
sâl-e gardân, ~ gereng

Fr.: année vague   

A year of 365 days that overlooks the fraction of less than 0.25 days corresponding to the whole length of the → tropical year. The vague year was used in the → calendars of ancient Egypt, Iran, Mayas, and some other civilizations. Typically the vague year was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 → epagomenal days.

From annus vagus "wandering year;" → vagueyear.

vernal-equinox year
  سال ِ هموگان ِ بهاری   
sâl-e hamugân-e bahâri

Fr.: année d'équinoxe vernal, année vernale   

The time interval between two successive passages of the Sun, when the true longitude of the Sun is considered. In other words, the interval during which the Sun's true longitude increases by 360 degrees. Its mean length for the epoch J2000.0 is 365.24236460 real solar days (approximately 365.2424 days). The vernal-equinox year, on which the Iranian calender is based, should not be confused with → tropical year. See also: A concise review of the Iranian calendar. → Iranian calendar

vernal; → equinox; → year.

year
  سال   
sâl (#)

Fr.: année, an   

In general, the time required for the Earth to complete one → revolution. Similarly, the time in which a planet completes its orbit around the Sun. In astronomy a distinction is made between various kinds of years, depending on the reference point used to measure the period of revolution. → anomalistic year; → Besselian year; → calendar year; → eclipse year; → embolismic year; → Galactic year; → Julian year; → leap year; → lunar year; → Platonic year; → sidereal year; → solar year; → Sothic year; → tropical year; → vernal-equinox year.

M.E. yeer; O.E. gēar (cf. O.S., O.H.G. jar, O.N. ar, Goth. jer, Du. jaar, Ger. Jahr); cf. O.Pers. dušiyāra- "evil year, bad harvest, famine" (from duš- "bad," → dys-, + yār- "year"); Av. yārə- "year;" Skt. paryārini- (*pari-yāram "a year long") "cow which has its first calf after a year;" Gk. hora "season, time of a day, year;" L. hornus "of this year;" → hour.

Sâl "year;" Mid.Pers. sâl "year;" Sogd. sarδ "year;" O.Pers. θrad- "year;" Av. sarəd- "year;" cf. Skt. śarád- "autumn;" maybe related to Lith. šilti "to become warm;" L. calor "heat," calere "to become warm;" PIE base *kele- "warm."