An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 5 Search : yellow
yellow
  زرد   
zard (#)

Fr.: jaune   

The primary color between green and orange in the visible spectrum; an effect of light with a wavelength between 5700 and 5900 Å. → yellow giant; → yellow supergiant.

M.E. yelou; O.E. geolo, geolu; P.Gmc. *gelwaz (cf. O.S., O.H.G. gelo, M.Du. ghele, Du. geel, Ger. gelb, Swed. gul "yellow"); cognate with Pers. zar "yellow," as below.

Zard "yellow," related to zarr "gold;" Mid.Pers. zard "yellow," zarr "gold;" O.Pers. daraniya- "gold;" Av. zaray-, zairi- "yellow, green," zaranya-, zarənu- "gold;" cf. Skt. hari- "yellow, green," hiranya- "gold;" Gk. chloros "light green," chloe "green shoot;" L. helvus "yellowish, bay;" Rus. zeltyj "yellow;" P.Gmc. *gelwaz, as above.

yellow giant
  غول ِ زرد، غولپیکر ِ ~   
qul-e zard (#), qulpeykar-e ~ (#)

Fr.: géante jaune   

A star that appears in the upper-middle part of the → H-R diagram, to the left of the → red giants. Yellow giants are low-mass evolved stars that are burning their helium, on their path to the → planetary nebula stage. Most yellow giants behave as variable stars, usually because their outer layers pulsate. Periods of these pulsations are usually days or weeks. The Sun after leaving the red giant stage will become a pulsating yellow giant for some 100 million years.

yellow; → giant.

yellow hypergiant (YHG)
  هیپرغول ِ زرد   
hiperqul-e zard

Fr.: hypergéante jaune   

An evolved, → very massive star of spectral type F or G with a very high luminosity (~105 times solar) lying near the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the → H-R diagram (→ Humphreys-Davidson limit). Yellow hypergiants have high → mass loss rates (10-5-10-3 solar masses per year) and are in a short, transitional evolutionary stage. Their evolutionary state is thought to correspond to post-red supergiants rapidly evolving in blueward loops in the H-R diagram. In their post-RSG blueward evolution these stars enter a temperature range (6000-9000 K), called → yellow void, with increased dynamical instability. Their link to other advanced evolutionary phases of massive stars such as → Luminous Blue Variables and → Wolf-Rayet stars is still an open issue in stellar evolution theory. The most famous yellow hypergiant is → Rho Cassiopeiae.

yellow; → hypergiant.

yellow supergiant (YSG)
  اَبَر-غول ِ زرد   
abarqul-e zard (#)

Fr.: supergéante jaune   

A supergiant star of type F and G whose effective temperature is between 4800 and 7500 K. Yellow supergiants are extremely rare, because they represent a very short-lived phase, typically a few tens of thousands of year, in the evolution of → massive stars.

yellow; → supergiant.

yellow void
  تهی ِ زرد   
tohi-ye zard

Fr.: lacune jaune   

A temperature range (6000-9000 K) in the → H-R diagram occupied by → yellow hypergiants in their post-RSG blueward evolution, where high → mass loss episodes occur.

yellow; → void.