An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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intergalactic absorption
  درشم ِ اندرکهکشانی   
daršam-e andarkahkešâni

Fr.: absorption intergalactique   

Absorption features in the spectra of bright sources like → quasars attributed to a tenuous matter filling the medium between galaxies.

intergalactic; → absorption.

intergalactic cloud
  ابر ِ اندرکهکشانی   
abr-e andarkahkešâni

Fr.: nuage intergalactique   

Intergalactic matter in the form of clouds.

intergalactic; → cloud.

intergalactic matter
  مادّه‌ی ِ اندرکهکشانی   
mâdde-ye andarkahkešâni

Fr.: matière intergalactique   

Very low density material found indirectly in the space between galaxies. → intergalactic absorption.

intergalactic; → matter.

intergalactic medium
  مدیم ِ اندرکهکشانی   
madim-e andarkahkešâni

Fr.: milieu intergalactique   

The matter or environment between the galaxies of a → cluster.

intergalactic; → medium.

ionization correction factor (ICF)
  کروند ِ ارشایش ِ یونش   
karvand-e aršâyeš-e yoneš

Fr.: facteur de correction d'ionisation   

A quantity used in studies of → emission nebulae to convert the → ionic abundance of a given chemical element to its total → elemental abundance. The elemental abundance of an element relative to hydrogen is given by the sum of abundances of all its ions. In practice, not all the ionization stages are observed. One must therefore correct for unobserved stages using ICFs. A common way to do this was to rely on → ionization potential considerations. However, → photoionization models show that such simple relations do not necessarily hold. Hence, ICFs based on grids of photoionization models are more reliable. Nevertheless here also care should be taken for several reasons: the atomic physics is not well known yet, the ionization structure of a nebula depends on the spectral energy distribution of the stellar radiation field, which differs from one model to another, and the density structure of real nebulae is more complicated than that of idealized models (see, e.g., Stasińska, 2002, astro-ph/0207500, and references therein).

ionization; → correction; → factor.

isotope fractionation
  برخانش ِ ایزوتوپی   
barxâneš-e izotopi

Fr.: fractionnement isotopique   

A slight difference between the → abundances of → isotopes of the same → chemical element owing to → physical or → chemical  → processes. It results in the → enrichment or → depletion of an isotope. Same as → isotopic fractionation.

isotope; → fractionation

isotopic fractionation
  برخانش ِ ایزوتوپی   
barxâneš-e izotopi

Fr.: fractionnement isotopique   

Same as → isotope fractionation.

isotopic; → fractionation

Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction
  ترنگش ِ کلوین-هلمهولتس   
terengeš-e Kelvin-Helmholtz

Fr.: contraction de Kelvin-Helmholtz   

The contraction of a volume of gas under its → gravity, accompanied by the → radiation of the lost → potential energy as → heat.

After the Scottish physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) and the German physicist and physician Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), who made important contributions to the thermodynamics of gaseous systems; → contraction.

Landé factor
  کروند ِ لانده   
karvand-e Landé

Fr.: facteur de Landé   

The constant of proportionality relating the separations of lines of successive pairs of adjacent components of the levels of a spectral multiplet to the larger of the two J-values for the respective pairs. The interval between two successive components J and J + 1 is proportional to J + 1.

After Alfred Landé (1888-1976), a German-American physicist, known for his contributions to quantum theory; → facteur.

last contact
  پرماس ِ واپسین   
parmâs-e vâpasin

Fr.: dernier contact   

Same as → fourth contact at an eclipse.

last; → contact.

law of refraction
  قانون ِ شکست   
qânun-e šekast (#)

Fr.: loi de réfraction   

One of the two laws governing → refraction of light when it enters another transparent medium: a) The → incident ray, normal to the surface, and refracted ray, all lie in the same plane. b) → Snell's law is satisfied.

law; → refraction.

length contraction
  ترنگش ِ درازا   
terengeš-e derâzâ

Fr.: contraction de longueur   

Same as → Lorentz contraction.

length; → contraction.

line of action
  خط ِ ژیرش، ~ کنش   
xatt-e žireš, ~ koneš

Fr.: ligne d'action   

Of a force, the straight line along which the force → vector is directed. The action of a force on a → rigid body does not change when its point of application is displaced along the line of action. Hence, forces applied to a rigid body can be regarded as non-localized, or sliding, vectors.

line; → action.

liquefaction
  آوش   
âveš

Fr.: liquéfaction   

1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid.
2) The state of being liquefied.

liquefy; → -tion.

Lorentz contraction
  ترنگش ِ لورنتز   
terengeš-e Lorentz

Fr.: contraction de Lorentz   

The decrease in the length of a body moving in the direction of its length as measured by an observer situated in that direction. The shortening factor is [1 - (v/c)2]1/2, where v is the relative velocity and c light speed.

Lorentz; → contraction.

Lorentz factor
  کروند ِ لورنتز   
karvand-e Lorentz

Fr.: facteur de Lorentz   

In → special relativity, an important parameter which appears in several equations, including → time dilation, → length contraction, and → relativistic mass. It is defined as γ = 1 / [1 - (v/c)2]1/2 = dt/dτ, where v is the velocity as observed in the reference frame where time t is measured, τ is the proper time, and c the → velocity of light. Same as Lorentz γ factor.

Lorentz; → factor.

mass fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ جرم   
barxe-ye jerm

Fr.: fraction de masse   

The fractional amount (by mass) of a given → chemical element or → nuclide in a given → chemical composition. In chemical composition studies of astrophysical objects the mass fractions of → hydrogen, → helium, and all the remaining chemical elements are usually denoted by the parameter X, Y, and Z, respectively. Their sum is defined as X + Y + Z = 1. The parameter Z is usually referred to as → heavy elements or → metals.

mass; → fraction.

meteoritic impact
  برخورد ِ شخانه‌ای   
barxord-e šaxâne-yi

Fr.: impact météoritique   

A striking of a meteorite against another body, especially the solar system planets or satellites.

meteoritic; → impact.

nuclear reaction
  واژیرش ِ هسته‌ای   
vâžireš-e haste-yi

Fr.: réaction nucléaire   

A process in which the energy, composition, or structure of an atomic nucleus changes.

nuclear; → reaction.

nuclear reactor
  واژیرگر ِ هسته‌ای   
vâžirgar-e haste-yi

Fr.: réacteur nucléaire   

A device in which a nuclear fission chain reaction is maintained and controlled for the production of nuclear energy or radioactive isotopes.

nuclear; → reactor.

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