Fr.: contenu d'information
Fr.: entropie de l'information
The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy.
Fr.: flot d'information
The flow of data into a system or to the end users.
Fr.: paradoxe de l'information
A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-2018) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for → quantum mechanics, which maintains that information can never be lost. This topic is a matter of intense debate. Many solutions have been proposed, but all of them have serious drawbacks. In order to analyze better these solutions one needs a quantum gravity theory, which does not exist at the moment. In brief, either the idea of → quantum unitarity must be given up, or a mechanism should be found by which information is not lost after it falls into a black hole.
dâneš-e azdâyeš azdâyik (#)
Same as → informatics.
Fr.: technologie de l'informtion
The science and activity of receiving, storing, processing, and transmitting information by using → computers.
negare-ye azdâyeš (#)
Fr.: théorie de l'information
The mathematical theory that defines, quantifies,
and analyzes the concept of → information.
It involves → probability theory in
→ transmission of → messages
when the → bits of information are subject to various
distortions. Its goal is to enable as much information as possible to be reliably
stored on a medium, retrieved, or communicated.
A person who provides → information.
isolated massive star formation
diseš-e vâyutide-ye setâre-ye porjerm
Fr.: formation isolée d'étoile massive
Massive star formation outside → OB associations. Recent observational findings suggest that → massive star formation is a collective process. In other words, massive stars form in → cluster environments and the mass of the most massive star in a cluster is correlated with the mass of the cluster itself. Nevertheless, other observational results give grounds for supposing that massive stars do not necessarily form in clusters but that they can be formed as isolated stars or in very small groups. According to statistical studies nearly 95% of Galactic → O star population is located in clusters or OB associations. This means that a small percentage, about 5%, of high mass stars may form in isolation. Isolation is meant not traceable to an origin in an OB association. This definition therefore excludes → runaway massive stars, which are thought to result from either dynamical interaction in massive dense clusters, or via a kick from a → supernova explosion in a → binary system. Alternatively, isolated massive star has been defined as follows: An O-type star belonging to a cluster whose total mass is < 100 Msun and moreover is devoid of → B stars (Selier et al. 2011, A&A 529, A40 and references therein).
Fr.: formalisme lagrangien
A reformulation of classical mechanics that describes the evolution of a physical system using → variational principle The formalism does not require the concept of force, which is replaced by the → Lagrangian function. The formalism makes the description of systems more simpler. Moreover, the passage from classical description to quantum description becomes natural. Same as → Lagrangian dynamics.
tarâdis-e Laplace (#)
Fr.: transformée de Laplace
An integral transform of a function obtained by multiplying the given function f(t) by e-pt, where p is a new variable, and integrating with respect to t from t = 0 to t = ∞.
Fr.: transformation de Legendre
A mathematical operation that transforms one function into another. Two differentiable functions f and g are said to be Legendre transforms of each other if their first derivatives are inverse functions of each other: df(x)/dx = (dg(x)/dx)-1. The functions f and g are said to be related by a Legendre transformation.
Fr.: transformation de Lorentz
A set of linear equations that expresses the time and space coordinates of one → reference frame in terms of those of another one when one frame moves at a constant velocity with respect to the other. In general, the Lorentz transformation allows a change of the origin of a coordinate system, a rotation around the origin, a reversal of spatial or temporal direction, and a uniform movement along a spatial axis. If the system S'(x',y',z',t') moves at the velocity v with respect to S(x,y,z,t) in the positive direction of the x-axis, the Lorentz transformations will be: x' = γ(x - vt), y' = y, z' = z, t' = γ [t - (vx/c2)], where c is the → velocity of light and γ = [1 - (v/c)2]-1/2. For the special case of velocities much less than c, the Lorentz transformation reduces to → Galilean transformation.
Fr.: formule de masse
Fr.: formule moléculaire
The formula of a chemical compound, showing the kind and arrangement of atoms.
Fr.: formule de Newton-Leibniz
The formula expressing the value of a → definite integral of a given function over an interval as the difference of the values at the end points of the interval of any → antiderivative of the function: ∫f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a), summed from x = a to x = b.
Fr.: formule de Nyquist
The mean square noise voltage across a resistance in thermal equilibrium is four times the product of the resistance, Boltzmann's constant, the absolute temperature, and the frequency range within which the voltage is measured. → Johnson-Nyquist noise.
Fr.: exécuter, accomplir
1) To carry out; → execute; do.
M.E. parformen, from Anglo-Fr. performer, from O.Fr. parfornir "to do, carry out, finish, accomplish," from par- "completely," → per-, + fornir "to provide."
Pergâlidan, from Kurd. (Sanandaj) pergâl "work, doing; order, command," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *parikar-, from *pari- "through, throughout; thoroughly" (O.Pers. pariy "around, about;" Av. pairi "around, over") + *kar- "to do;" Pers. kar-, variants kâr, gar, gâr, → work.
Fr.: 1, 3) représentation, interprétation; 2) fonctionnement, performance; exécution
1) The act of performing a ceremony, play, piece of music, etc.