An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 93 Search : low
low
  ۱) کم، که؛ ۲) کوتاه، پایین   
1) kam (#), keh (#); 2) kutâh (#), pâyin (#)

Fr.: bas, faible   

1) Below the average or expected degree, amount, or intensity. Having or containing a relatively small amount.
2) Situated, placed, or occurring not far above the ground, floor, or base. Relatively little in height.

From M.E. lah, from O.N. lagr "low," from P.Gmc. *lægaz (cf. O.Fris. lech, Du. laag, Ger. läge "low"), literally "that which is lying flat;" related to E. lie (v.).

Kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few."
Keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen"); kutâh, → small; pâyin, → bottom-up structure.

low redshift
  که‌سرخ‌کیب   
keh sorxkib

Fr.: faible décalage vers le rouge   

A redshift characterizing a near-by receding object.

low; → redshift.

low resolution
  که‌واگشود   
keh vâgošud

Fr.: faible résolution   

The quality of an instrument that lacks sufficient resolution for a specific observation. This is a relative quality, but presently a resolution below about 1 arcsecond.

low; → resolution.

low surface brightness galaxy (LSBG)
  کهکشان با درخشندگی ِ رویه‌ای ِ کم   
kahkešân bâ deraxšandegi-ye ruye-yi-ye kam

Fr.: galaxie à faible brillance de surface   

A member of a particularly faint population of galaxies with a central → surface brightness below the brightness of the background sky. The central regions of many of them resemble a → dwarf galaxy, but most of the mass is contained in a large gaseous disk of low density that is observable only with long-exposure optical images or at radio wavelengths. Some are as massive as a large → spiral galaxy, for example Malin 1. The proportion of LSBGs relative to normal galaxies is unknown. They may however represent a significant fraction of mass in the Universe. LSBGs are thought to be primitive systems because they have total masses similar to normal galaxies, but have typically converted less than 10% of their gas into stars. Spiral LSBGs do not obey → Freeman's law.

low; → surface; → brightness; → galaxy.

low tide
  اوپس، جزر   
owpas (#), jazr (#)

Fr.: marée basse   

The state of the → tide when at its lowest level.

low; → tide.

Owpas, from Persian Gulf dialects, literally "backward water," from ow, variant of âb, → water, + pas "→ back, behind."
Jazr, loan from Ar.

low water
  اوپس، جزر   
owpas, jazr

Fr.: marée basse   

Also known as → low tide.

low; → water.

low-energy neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ کم‌کاروژ   
notrino-ye kamkâruž

Fr.: neutrino faible énergie   

A neutrino which is mainly produced in → nuclear processes, such as the ones in the → Sun (→ solar neutrino), or in the center of an exploding → supernova. Such neutrinos are, however, more energetic than those making up the → cosmic neutrino background.

low; → energy; → neutrino.

low-ionization line
  خط ِ کم‌یونش   
xatt-e kamyoneš (#)

Fr.: raie de faible ionisation   

A spectral line arising from a transition between atomic levels with an ionization potential below approximately 15 electron-volts.

low; → ionization; → line.

low-ionization nuclear emission-line region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ هسته‌ای با خط ِ گسیلی ِ کم‌یونش   
nâhiye-ye hasteyi bâ xatt-e gosili-ye kamyoneš (#)

Fr.: Noyau de galaxie à raies d'émission de faible ionisation   

Same as → LINER.

low; → ionization; → nuclear; → emission; → line; → region.

low-loss fiber
  فیبر ِ کم‌دسترفت   
fibr-e kamdastraft

Fr.: fibre à faible perte   

Optical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber.

low; → loss; → fiber.

low-mass galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کم‌جرم   
kahkešân-e kamjerm

Fr.: galaxie de faible masse   

A galaxy with stellar masses ≤ 109 → solar masses (Dawn K. Erb, 2015, Nature, 9 July).

low; → mass; → galaxy.

low-mass star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کم‌جرم   
setâre-ye kamjerm (#)

Fr.: étoile de faible masse   

A star whose mass is around that of the Sun. See also: → intermediate-mass star; → high-mass star; → star formation.

low; → mass; → star.

low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB)
  درین ِ پرتو ایکس ِ کم‌جرم   
dorin-e partow-e iks-e kam-jerm

Fr.: binaire X de faible masse   

A member of one of the two main classes of → X-ray binary systems where one of the components is a → neutron star or → black hole and the other component a → low-mass star with a spectral type A or later. LMXBs mainly emit → soft X-rays. The ratio of their optical to X-ray luminosities is less than 0.1. They belong to → old stellar populations with ages 5-15 × 109 years and are found in → globular clusters and in the → bulge of our → Milky Way galaxy; some are also found in the disk. Hercules X-1 is an example of LMXBs.
See also: → high-mass X-ray binary.

low; → mass; → X-ray; → binary.

low-metallicity environment
  پرگیر ِ کم‌فلز   
pargir-e kamfelez

Fr.: environnement faible en métaux   

A medium in which chemical elements have abundances smaller than the solar values.

low; → metallicity; → environment.

lower
  زیرین   
zirin (#)

Fr.: inférieur   

Relatively low in position, rank, or order.

Comparative of → low.

lower atmosphere
  هواسپهر ِ زیرین، جو ِ ~   
havâsepehr-e zirin, javv-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère inférieure   

Generally and quite loosely, that part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena occur (i.e., the → troposphere and lower → stratosphere); hence used in contrast to the common meaning for the → upper atmosphere. In other contexts, the term implies the lower troposphere (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

lower; → atmosphere.

lower culmination
  بالست ِ زیرین   
bâlest-e zirin

Fr.: culmination inférieure   

The instant of culmination when the star passes between the pole and the horizon, having an hour angle of 12h. Lower culmination for non-circumpolar objects occur below the horizon and is thus unobservable. Same as → inferior culmination. See also → upper culmination.

lower; → culmination.

lower main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست ِ زیرین   
rešte-ye farist-e zirin

Fr.: séquence principale inférieure   

A → main sequence star whose mass is less than 1.5 Msun. Lower main sequence stars generate their energy chiefly through the → proton-proton chain. The core is surrounded by a → radiative zone above which lies a → convective envelope. In such stars the → opacity at the surface is high because of the low → surface temperature. Therefore, radiation cannot carry all the radiation because of high opacity. Thus, energy transfer takes place by → convection to the outer layer.

lower; → main; → sequence.

lower mantle
  گوشته‌ی ِ زیرین   
gušte-ye zirin

Fr.: manteau inférieur   

The part of the Earth's → mantle extending from about 660 km below the surface to above the → outer core at about 2,900 km.

lower; → mantle.

lunar horizon glow
  فروغ ِ افق ِ ماه   
foruq-e ofoq-e mâh

Fr.: éclat de l'horizon lunaire   

A very bright crescent of light glowing on the lunar horizon at → sunset or just before → sunrise. It has been suggested that → lunar dust is transported electrically high into sky, allowing sunlight to scatter and create glows. On the day side of the → Moon, solar → ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to kick → electrons from → dust grains in the lunar soil. Removal of electrons, which have a negative electric charge, leaves the dust with a positive electric charge. Since like charges repel, the positively charged dust particles get pushed away from each other, and the only direction not blocked by more dust is up. In the 1960s, Surveyor probes filmed a glowing cloud floating just above the lunar surface during sunrise. Later, Apollo 17 astronaut Gene Cernan, while orbiting the Moon, recorded a similar phenomenon at the sharp line where lunar day meets night, called the → terminator.

lunar; → horizon; → glow.

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