The boundary layer between a planet's → magnetosphere and the → magnetic field of the → solar wind. It borders the → magnetosheath and is defined by the surface on which the pressure of the solar wind is balanced by that of the planet's magnetic field. The front point of the Earth's magnetopause, on the sun-ward side of the Earth, is about 10 terrestrial radii, on average. This point can be closer or farther, because the magnetopause contracts or expands depending on the intensity of the solar wind.
From → magneto- + pause "break, cessation, stop," from M.Fr. pause, from L. pausa "a halt, stop, cessation," from Gk. pausis "stopping, ceasing," from pauein "to stop, to cause to cease."
From meqnât-→ magnet + marz "frontier, border, boundary," from Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.
magnetorotational instability (MRI)
Fr.: instabilité magnétorotationnelle
An instability that arises from the action of a weak → poloidal magnetic field in a → differentially rotating system, such as a → Keplerian disk. The MRI provides a mechanism to account for the additional outward → angular momentum transport. To put it simply, the → frozen magnetic field line acts as a spring connecting two radially neighboring fluid parcels. In a Keplerian disk the inner fluid parcel orbits more rapidly than the outer, causing the spring to stretch. The magnetic tension forces the inner parcel to slow down reducing its angular momentum by moving it to a lower orbit. The outer fluid parcel is forced by the spring to speed up, increase its angular momentum, and therefore move to a higher orbit. The spring tension increases as the two fluid parcels grow further apart, and eventually the process runs away. The MRI was first noted in a non-astrophysical context by E. Velikhov in 1959 when considering the stability of → Couette flow of an ideal hydromagnetic fluid. His result was later generalized by S. Chandrasekhar in 1960. The MRI was rediscovered by Balbus and Hawley 1991 (ApJ 376, 214) who demonstrated that this instability does indeed manifest itself in → accretion disks, and could account for the turbulent mixing needed to explain the observed mass → accretion rates.
The region between a planet's magnetopause and the bow shock caused by the solar wind.
From → magneto- + sheath, from O.E. sceað, scæð, from P.Gmc. *skaithiz (cf. M.Du. schede, Du. schede, O.H.G. skaida, Ger. Scheide "scabbard").
From meqnât-, → magnet, + niyâm "sheath," from Proto-Iranian *nigāma-, from ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gāma- "to go, to come" (Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Mod./Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come"); cf. Skt. nigamá- "insertion, incorporation."
The region around a celestial body in which the magnetic field of the body dominates the external magnetic field. Each planet with a magnetic field (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) has a magnetopause. The Earth's magnetosphere is a dynamic system that responds to solar variations. It prevents most of the charged particles carried in the → solar wind, from hitting the Earth. Since the solar wind is → supersonic, a → bow shock is formed on the sunward side of the magnetosphere. The solar wind ahead is deflected at a boundary called → magnetopause. The region between the bow shock and the magnetopause is called the → magnetosheath. As the solar wind sweeps past the Earth, the terrestrial magnetic field lines are stretched out toward the night side to form a → magnetotail.
Fr.: queue magnétique
The portion of a planet's → magnetosphere which is pushed away from the Sun by the solar wind. Earth's magnetosphere extends about 65,000 km on the day-side but more than 10 times further.
meridional magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye nimruzâni
Fr.: champ magnétiquue méridien
In the → solar dynamo model, a magnetic field that points from the north to south or south to north.
non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e nâ-ârmâni, ~ nâ-minevâr
Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique non idéale
A → magnetohydrodynamics approach dealing with → plasmas which is an improvement with respect to → ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics allows for a drift between particles, redistributing the → magnetic flux and acting on both the → angular momentum and magnetic flux conservation issues.
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi-ye haste-yi
Fr.: résonance magnétique nucléaire
An analysis technique applied to some atomic nuclei that have the property to behave as small magnets and respond to the application of a magnetic field by absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation. When nuclei which have a magnetic moment (such as 1H, 13C, 29Si, or 31P) are submitted to a constant magnetic field and at the same time to a radio-frequency alternating magnetic field, the nuclear magnetic moment is excited to higher energy states if the alternating field has the specific resonance frequency. This technique is especially used in spectroscopic studies of molecular structure and in particular provides valuable information in medicine that can be used to deduce the structure of organic compounds.
meqnâtis-e haste-yi (#)
Fr.: magnétisme nucléaire
The magnetism associated with the magnetic field generated by atomic nuclei.
Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique à une fluide
A → magnetohydrodynamics treatment in which the → plasma consists only of one particle species and moves with the bulk speed. The thermal motion of the particles is neglected and thus there is no motion of particles relative to each other.
open magnetic field line
xatt-e bâz-e meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye
Fr.: ligne ouverte de champ magnétique
In the context of solar physics, a → magnetic field line when it crosses the solar surface only once, i.e., when it goes from surface to infinity. This is the case at a sufficiently large scale in → coronal holes. This is mostly not the case in → active regions.
The study of natural remanent magnetization in order to determine the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field in the geologic past.
A paramagnetic substance, which possesses → paramagnetism.
Relative to or characterized by → paramagnetism.
The property of a substance that possesses a → magnetic permeability greater than that of a vacuum but significantly less than that exhibited by → ferromagnetism. In the absence of an external magnetic field the atomic → magnetic moments of the substance are randomly oriented and thus cancel each other out with no net total magnetic moment. Moreover the coupling between neighboring moments is weak. However, when a magnetic field is applied magnetic moments align with the direction of the field and so the magnetic moments add together. Therefore paramagnetic substances affect external fields in a positive way, by attraction to the field resulting in a local increase in the magnetic field. The → magnetization vanishes when the field is removed.
Fr.: aimant permanent
A piece of magnetic material which, having been → magnetized, retains a substantial proportion of its → magnetization indefinitely. In permanent magnets the magnetic field is generated by the internal structure of the material itself. Atoms and crystals constituting materials are made up of electrons and atomic nuclei. Both the nucleus and the electrons themselves act like little magnets. There is also a magnetic field generated by the orbits of the electrons as they move about the nucleus. So the magnetic fields of permanent magnets are the sums of the nuclear spins, the electron spins and the orbits of the electrons themselves. In many materials, the magnetic fields are pointing in all sorts of random directions and cancel each other out and there is no permanent magnetism. But in certain materials, called → ferromagnets, all the spins and the orbits of the electrons will line up, causing the materials to become magnetic. Many permanent magnets are created by exposing the magnetic material to a very strong external magnetic field. Once the external magnetic field is removed, the treated magnetic material is now converted into a permanent magnet. Overheating a permanent magnet causes the magnet's atoms to vibrate violently and disrupt the alignment of the atomic domains and their dipoles. Once cooled, the domains will not realign as before on their own and will structurally become a temporary magnet (MagLab Dictionary).
poloidal magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye qotbivâr
Fr.: champ magnétique poloïdal
1) In → protoplanetary disk models, the magnetic field
whose large-scale lines of force depart away from the → accretion disk,
in the direction of the rotation axis.
Fr.: magnétosphère de pulsar
A dense zone of magnetized → plasma surrounding a → pulsar. The magnetosphere, lying between the surface of the → neutron star and the → light cylinder, corotates with the pulsar like a rigid body under the effect of strong magnetic field. The magnetosphere's thickness is determined by the constraint that the corotation velocity of its upper surface should not exceed the → speed of light.
solar magnetic cycle
carxe-ye meqnâtisi-ye xoršid
Fr.: cycle magnétique solaire
solar magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye xoršid (#)
Fr.: champ magnétique solaire
The Sun's magnetic field which is probably created by the → differential rotation of the Sun together with the movement of charged particles in the → convective zone. Understanding how the solar magnetic field comes about is the fundamental problem of Solar Physics. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all solar magnetic phenomena, such as → sunspots, → solar flares, → coronal mass ejections, and the → solar wind. The solar magnetic fields are observed from the → Zeeman broadening of spectral lines, → polarization effects on radio emission, and from the channeling of charged particles into visible → coronal streamers. The strength of Sun's average magnetic field is 1 → gauss (twice the average field on the surface of Earth, around 0.5 gauss), and can be as strong as 4,000 Gauss in the neighborhood of a large sunspot.