An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 31 Search : method
perturbation method
  روش ِ پرتورش   
raveš-e partureš

Fr.: méthode de perturbation   

Approximate method of solving a difficult problem if the equations to be solved depart only slightly from those of a problem already solved.

perturbation; → method.

profile fitting method
  روش ِ سزکرد ِ فراپال   
raveš-e sazkard-e farâpâl

Fr.: méthode de l'ajustement de profils   

A method of analysis in which the observed stellar image profiles or spectral line profiles are fitted by model profiles in order to study and derive some properties of the object.

profile; → fitting; → method.

radial velocity method
  روش ِ تندای ِ شعاعی   
raveš-e tondâ-ye šo'â'i

Fr.: méthode de vitesses radiales   

The technique based on the analysis of the → radial velocity curve, used to detect the presence of an invisible secondary around a host star. This method holds the majority of exoplanet discoveries.

radial velocity; → method.

Ruffini-Horner method
  روش ِ روفینی-هورنر   
raveš-e Ruffini-Horner

Fr.: méthode de Ruffini-Horner   

A method for finding the value of a → polynomial given by a real number and deriving its → roots. It consists essentially of factoring the polynomial in a nested form. Also known as → nested multiplication.

Named after Paolo Ruffini (1765-1822) and William Horner (1786-1837), who independently elaborated the method; → method.

scientific method
  روش ِ دانشی   
raveš-e dâneši

Fr.: méthode scientifique   

The process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (that is, reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary) representation of the world. The scientific method has four steps:
1) Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena.
2) Formulation of an hypothesis to explain the phenomena. In physics, the hypothesis often takes the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relation.
3) Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations.
4) Performance of experimental tests of the predictions by several independent experimenters and properly performed experiments.
If the experiments bear out the hypothesis it may come to be regarded as a theory or law of nature. If the experiments do not bear out the hypothesis, it must be rejected or modified. What is key in the description of the scientific method just given is the predictive power (the ability to get more out of the theory than you put in) of the hypothesis or theory, as tested by experiment. It is often said in science that theories can never be proved, only disproved. There is always the possibility that a new observation or a new experiment will conflict with a long-standing theory (Frank L. H. Wolfs, University of Rochester).

scientific; → method.

simplex method
  روش ِ تکتافتی   
raveš-e taktâfti

Fr.: méthode du simplexe   

An → algorithm for solving the classical → linear programming problem; developed by George B. Dantzig in 1947. The simplex method is an → iterative method, solving a system of → linear equations in each of its steps, and stopping when either the → optimum is reached, or the solution proves infeasible. The basic method remained pretty much the same over the years, though there were many refinements targeted at improving performance (e.g. using sparse matrix techniques), numerical accuracy and stability, as well as solving special classes of problems, such as mixed-integer programming (Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing, FOLDOC).

simplex; → method.

Socratic method
  روش ِ سقراطی، ~ سقراتی   
raveš-e Soqrâti

Fr.: méthode socratique   

The use of questions, as employed by Socrates, to develop a latent idea, as in the mind of a pupil, or to elicit admissions, as from an opponent, tending to establish a proposition (

Socratic; → method.

tip of the red giant branch method
  روش ِ نوک ِ شاخه‌ی غول‌های ِ سرخ   
raveš-e nok-e šâxe-ye qulhâ-ye sorx

Fr.: méthode du haut de la branche des géantes   

A technique for deriving extragalactic distances which uses the → luminosity of the brightest → red giant branch stars in old → stellar populations as a "standard candle." For old (> 2-3 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -0.7) stellar populations, this luminosity is relatively well determined, and the → absolute magnitude of these stars in the I band is roughly constant (MI = -4.1 ± 0.1).

M.E. tip; from M.L.G. or M.Du. tip "utmost point, extremity" (cf. Ger. zipfel, a diminutive formation); → red giant; → branch; → method.

Raveš, → method; nok "tip;" šâxé, → branch; qulhâ-ye sorx plural of qul-e sorx, → red giant.

transit method
  روش ِ گذر   
raveš-e gozar

Fr.: méthode du transit   

A method for detecting → exoplanets that is based on the decrease of star → brightness when the exoplanet passes in front of its star. As the planet transits, a portion of the light from the star is blocked causing a decrease in the → magnitude of the star. The amount of decrease (typically between 0.01% and 1%) depends on the sizes of the star and the planet. The duration of the transit depends on the planet's distance from the star and the star's mass. This change must be periodic if it is caused by a planet. In addition, all transits produced by the same planet must be of the same change in brightness and last the same amount of time. Once detected, the planet's distance from its star can be calculated from the period and the mass of the star using → Kepler's third law of planetary motion. The size of the planet is found from the depth of the transit and the size of the star. From the orbital size and the temperature of the star, the planet's characteristic temperature can be calculated. Knowing the star's mass and size, the planet's size and distance can be estimated. Also the composition of a → transiting planet's atmosphere can, in principle, be determined.

transit; → method.

Zanstra method
  روش ِ زنسترا   
raveš-e Zanstra

Fr.: méthode de Zanstra   

The method of using the nebular observations to estimate the stellar ultraviolet radiation and the temperature of the central star in a planetary nebula. The basic assumptions are that the flux from a star could be approximately represented by the Planck function and that the nebula absorbs all the ultraviolet photons from the star which can cause ionization. For each ultraviolet photon absorbed an Hα photon is emitted when the ionized hydrogen subsequently recombines with an electron. Thus the strength of the Hα line is related to the ultraviolet flux of the star. However, modern theoretical work on stellar atmospheres shows that there are important deviations between the emergent fluxes from stars and Planck functions. Moreover, some of the stellar ultraviolet photons may be missed.

Named after the Dutch astrophysicist Herman Zanstra (1894-1972), who first introduced the method in 1927.

zero method
  روش ِ صفر   
raveš-e sefr

Fr.: méthode de zéro   

same as → null method.

zero; → method.

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