An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 84 Search : plane
interplanetary dust
  غبار ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
qobâr-e andarsayyâreyi

Fr.: poussière interplanétaire   

Particles of dust in the → interplanetary medium. They are left-overs from the beginning of the solar system or from other sources such as sublimating comets. Their existence was first deduced from observations of → zodiacal light.

interplanetary; → dust.

interplanetary gas
  گاز ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
gâz-e andarsayyâreyi

Fr.: gaz interplanétaire   

Electrically charged particles of the solar wind and gas liberated from comets within the solar system.

interplanetary; → gas.

interplanetary magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye andarsayyârei

Fr.: champ magnétique interstellaire   

The magnetic field that is carried along with the solar wind and fills the solar system space. It is wound into a spiral structure by the rotation of the Sun. At the Earth's distance from the Sun, it has a strength of about 5 x 10-5 gauss.

interplanetary; → magnetic; → field.

interplanetary matter
  مادّه‌ی ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
mâdde-ye andarsayyâreyi

Fr.: matière interplanétaire   

Material existing in the space between solar system planets. It includes interplanetary gas and dust.

interplanetary; → matter.

interplanetary medium
  مدیم ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
madim-e andarsayâre-yi

Fr.: milieu interplanétaire   

The material contained in the → solar system in the space through which the planets travel. It consists of the smaller objects such as → asteroids, → comets, → meteorites and also a general pervading → interplanetary dust. Moreover a → plasma of charged particles streaming outward from the Sun in the form of the → solar wind contributes to the interplanetary medium.

interplanetary; → medium.

interplanetary space
  فضای ِ اندرسیاره‌ای   
fazâ-ye anadrsayyâre-yi

Fr.: espace interplanétaire   

Same as → interplanetary medium.

interplanetary; → space.

intramercurial planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ فروتیری   
sayyâre-ye forutiri

Fr.: planète intramercurienne   

A hypothetical planet, named Vulcan, that once was believed to exist between the Sun and Mercury.

intra-; → Mercury; → planet.

invariable plane
  هامُن ِ ناورتنده   
hâmon-e nâvartandé

Fr.: plan invariable   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, a plane which is perpendicular to the angular momentum vector of the body, and which is always tangent to its → inertia ellipsoid.

Invariable negation of → variable; → plane.

jet plane
  جت، هواپیما‌ی ِ ~   
jet (#), havâpeymâ-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: avion à réaction   

An airplane moved by → jet propulsion.

jet; plane, short for airplane, from Fr. aeroplane, from aero-, → air, + plane feminine of plan "flat, level," from L. planus, perhaps by association with forme plane; apparently coined and first used by Fr. sculptor and inventor Joseph Pline in 1855.

jet; havâpeymâ "airplane," from havâ, → air, + peymâ "travelling; traveller," from peymudan, peymâyidan "to travel, traverse, pass over," from Mid.Pers. patmudan, paymudan "to measure (against)," from *pati-māya-. The first element *pati- "against, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "against, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti). The second element from *mā- "to measure;" O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." Apart from peymâ, several other terms in Mod.Pers. are related to this second element, which occurs also as mun, mân, man, mâ, mu, and mây: pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun, âzmây- "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," man "a measure weighing forty seers)," nemudan, ne- "to show, display," âdan, âmây- "to prepare."

Jovian planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ هرمزی   
sayyâre-ye Hormozi

Fr.: planète jovienne   

A planet that does not have a well-defined → solid  → crust, such as any of the four Solar System outer, gaseous planets: → Jupiter, → Saturn, → Uranus, and → Neptune.

Jovian; → planet.

Laplace plane
  هامن ِ لاپلاس   
hâmon-e Laplace

Fr.: plan de Laplace   

The plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellite's orbit → precesses. In his study of Jupiter's satellites, Laplace (1805) recognized that the combined effects of the solar tide and the planet's oblateness induced a "proper" inclination in satellite orbits with respect to Jupiter's equator. He remarked that this proper inclination increases with the distance to the planet, and defined an orbital plane (currently called Laplace plane) for circular orbits that lies between the orbital plane of the planet's motion around the Sun and its equator plane (Tremaine et al., 2009, AJ, 137, 3706).

Laplace; → plane.

major planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ مهین   
sayyâre-ye mehin

Fr.: planète majeure   

A name used to describe any planet that is considerably larger and more massive than the Earth, and contains large quantities of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter and Neptune are examples of major planets.

major; → planète.

minor planet
  سیارک   
sayyârak (#)

Fr.: petite planète   

An obsolete name used to describe an → asteroid.

minor; → planet.

multiplanet system
  راژمان ِ بس-سیاره‌ای   
râžmân-e bas-sayâre-yi

Fr.: système multi-planète   

A stellar system with more than one orbiting planet.

multi-; → planet; → system.

ocean planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ اقیانوسی   
sayyâre-ye oqyânusi

Fr.: planète océan   

A hypothetical → exoplanet covered by a water envelope. The presence of such a planet stems from the implicit assumption of → Habitable Zone temperatures and a liquid water surface.

ocean; → planet.

orbital plane
  هامُنِ مداری   
hâmon-e madâri

Fr.: plan orbital   

The plane defined by the motion of an object about a primary body.

orbital; → plane .

osculating plane
  هامُنِ آبوسنده   
hâmon-e âbusandé

Fr.: plan osculateur   

For a curve C at a point p, the limiting plane obtained from taking planes through the tangent to C at p and containing some variable point p' and then letting p' approach p along C.

osculating; → plane.

outer planet
  سیاره‌یِ بیرونی   
seyyâre-ye biruni (#)

Fr.: planète extérieure   

A planet that revolves around the Sun beyond the → asteroid belt, namely → Jupiter, → Saturn, → Uranus, and → Neptune.

out; → planet.

plane
  ۱) هامُن؛ ۲) تخت   
1) hâmon (#); 2) taxt (#)

Fr.: plan   

1) (n.) a flat or level surface.
2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to planes or plane figures.

1) From L. plantum "flat surface," noun use of adj. planus "flat, level, plain."
2) From L. planus, as above.

1) Hâmon, variant of hâmun "plain, level ground;" Mid.Pers. hâmôn "level, flat;" Proto-Iranian *hāma-van-, from *hāma- "same, equally, even; together, with" (Mod.Pers./Mid.Pers. ham-; O.Pers./Av. ham-; cf. Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + *-van- suffix.
2) Taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board."

plane figure
  شکل ِ هامن، ~ تخت   
šekl-e hâmon, ~ taxt

Fr.: figure plane   

A two-dimensional geometric figure. The points of the figure lie entirely in a plane.

plane; → figure.

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