1) bâzhâxtan, bâzhâzidan; 2) kâstan
1) To bring to a certain state, condition, arrangement, etc.
M.E. reducen "to lead back," from O.Fr. reducer, from L. reducere, from → re- "back" + ducere "to bring, to lead."
From bâz-, → re- +
Mid.Pers. hâxtan, hâzidan
"to lead, guide, persuade," Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join," cf.
Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai
"to follow," L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw- "to follow."
Fr.: masse réduite
The "effective" → inertial mass appearing in the → two-body problem of → Newtonian mechanics. The reduced mass is a quantity which allows the two-body problem to be solved as if it were a one-body problem. For the masses m1 and m2, it is given by the ratio μ = m1m2 / (m1 + m2). The value of μ is generally smaller than m1 and m2. The larger the difference between the two masses, the closer μ will be to the smaller mass. If the particles are of equal mass, μ is half the mass of either.
reduced Planck constant
pâyâ-ye Planck-e bâzhâzidé
Fr.: constante de Planck réduite
reduced Planck's constant
pâyâ-ye Planck-e bâzhâzidé
Fr.: constante de Planck réduite
javv-e bâzhâzandé, havâsepehr-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère réductrice
1) An atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal
of oxygen and other oxidating gasses or vapours. Usually nitrogen or
hydrogen gas is used in order to produce specific effects, e.g. on
ceramic wares being fired.
Same as → reducing agent.
Agent noun from → reduce.
reductio ad absurdum
bâzhâzeš bé yâvé
Fr.: raisonnement par l'absurde
Logic, Math.: A method of → reasoning in which one assumes some statement to be → true and from that → assumption proceeds to deduce a logical → absurdity and hence to a conclusion that the original assumption must have been → false.
1) In → data processing, the transformation of data from
a "raw" form to some usable form.
Verbal noun of → reduce.
The fact of repeating or duplicity.
From L. redundantia "an overflowing, excess," from redundare "to flow back, overflow, be excessive," from → re- "again" + undare "rise in waves," from unda "a wave."
Afzun-âyi "redundancy, superabounding," from afzun "more, greater; more ample," from afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens") + âyi verbal noun of ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become" (Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go").
sorx kib-e bâzânigimand
Fr.: décalage vers le rouge relativiste
Fr.: image restaurée
An image that has been upgraded by a process of → image restoration.
Fr.: galaxie retraitée
An old galaxy with faint emission lines whose ratios are similar to those of → LINERs, i.e. galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. All galaxies after consuming their → molecular clouds, where stars are formed, follow a "passive" evolution during which their → stellar populations simply get older and older. The old stellar populations contain hot post-→ AGB stars and → white dwarfs which are able to ionize the surrounding gas and produce spectra identical to those of LINERS.
Retired in the sense "withdrawn from or no longer occupied with one's business or profession," p.p. of retire, from M.Fr. retirer "to withdraw (something)," from → re- "back" + O.Fr. tirer "to draw;" → galaxy. The concept of retired galaxies was first proposed by G. Stasińska et al. (2008, MNRAS 391, L29) to name the final stages of galaxies that cease their star forming activity. The word "retired" is also to be taken by opposition to "active" in the sense of "containing an accreting black hole" (like Seyfert galaxies), since liners are often thought to be a scaled down version of Seyfert nuclei.
Bâznešasté "retired," literally "seated back, seated away," from bâz-→ re- + nešasté "seated," p.p. of nešastan "to sit;" Mid.Pers. nišastan "to sit;" O.Pers. nišādayam [1 sg.impf.caus.act.] "to sit down, to establish," hadiš- "abode;" Av. nišasiiā [1 sg.subj.acr.] "I shall sit down," from nihad- "to sit down," from ni- "down, in, into," → ni-, + had- "to sit;" PIE base *sed- "to sit;" cf. Skt. sad- "to sit," sidati "sits;" Gk. hezomai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair;" L. sedere "to sit;" O.Ir. suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat;" Lith. sedmi "to sit;" Rus. sad "garden;" Goth. sitan, Ger. sitzen; E. sit.
rotation-powered pulsar (RPP)
tapâr-e carxeš-tavân, pulsâr-e ~ ~
A → neutron star that is spinning down as a result of → torques from → magnetic dipole radiation and particle emission. RPPs derive their energy primarily from the → rotation of the neutron star. The energy from their → spin-down appears as broad-band pulsations from → radio to → gamma-ray wavelengths and as a → wind of energetic particles flowing into their surrounding → pulsar wind nebulae. Since the discovery of RPPs through their radio → pulsations in 1967, more than 2000 → radio pulsars are now known with periods ranging from a few milliseconds to several seconds (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).
1) Occurring or distributed over widely spaced and irregular intervals in time or space.
Past participle of → scatter.
Fr.: deuxième dragage
A → dredge-up process that occurs after core helium burning, in which the convective envelope penetrates much more deeply, pushing hydrogen burning shell into close proximity with the helium burning shell (→ first dredge-up). This arrangement is unstable and leads to burning pulses. The reason is that the hydrogen shell burns out until there is enough helium for the helium combustion to occur and all the helium is rapidly burnt. Afterward the hydrogen shell again burns outward and the process repeats.
South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD)
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Daštar
Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle sud
A large area of the south polar region of → Mars which is covered with layers of → water ice and → dust. The SPLD, like the NPLD, has a maximum relief relative to the surrounding terrain of ~ 3.5 km and ~ 1,000 km across. Above the SPLD lies a very thin temporary (1-10 m) cap of → carbon dioxide ice/frost that snows out in the winter and sublimates over the spring and summer seasons. It is believed that the rhythmic nature of the deposits is related to oscillations in Mars' → orbital parameters (J. J. Plaut et al., 2007, Science 316, 92).
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)
Nepâhešgâh-e Cine-sepehri barây axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx
Fr.: Observatoire stratosphérique pour l'astronomie infrarouge
A partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 m. NASA Ames Research Center manages SOFIA's science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association and the German SOFIA Institute. SOFIA is the largest airborne observatory in the world, with a planned 20-year lifetime.
Fr.: troisième dragage
A → dredge-up process that occurs in the stellar interior during He shell burning, as in → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. These stars consist of a degenerate carbon-oxygen core, surrounded by a helium-rich region, above which lies a hydrogen-rich convective envelope. Following thermal pulses of the helium-burning shell, the convective envelope moves inward in mass, penetrating the hydrogen-exhausted regions. This is known as third dredge-up. As convection moves inward, nuclear processed materials are carried to the surface.
tip of the red giant branch method
raveš-e nok-e šâxe-ye qulhâ-ye sorx
Fr.: méthode du haut de la branche des géantes
A technique for deriving extragalactic distances which uses the → luminosity of the brightest → red giant branch stars in old → stellar populations as a "standard candle." For old (> 2-3 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -0.7) stellar populations, this luminosity is relatively well determined, and the → absolute magnitude of these stars in the I band is roughly constant (MI = -4.1 ± 0.1).