Fr.: galaxie à flambée d'étoiles
A galaxy showing a short-lived intense period of star formation that is unsustainable over the → Hubble time due to the limited supply of gas within a galaxy. Starburst galaxies were first classified by Searle & Sargent (1972) and Searle et al. (1973), based on the blue colors produced by the → massive stars formed during the burst. In the local Universe, starbursts create approximately 10% of the radiant energy and 20% of the massive stars. At z = 1, starburst characteristics are found in 15% of galaxies, presumably attributable to the greater amounts of gas typically present in young galaxies and increased galactic interactions. The starburst's impact on a galaxy and the surrounding → intergalactic medium is primarily due to the consumption of gas that fuels the burst and the feedback from massive stars formed in the burst (McQuinn et al. 2010, astro-ph/1008.1589).
Fr.: effet Stark
Named after Johannes Stark (1874-1957), a German physicist, and Physics Nobel Prize laureate (1919); → effect.
Fr.: tremblement d'étoile
An astrophysical phenomenon that occurs when the crust of a → neutron star undergoes a sudden adjustment, analogous to an → earthquake on Earth. Starquakes are thought to be caused by huge → stresses exerted on the surface of the neutron star produced by twists in the ultra-strong interior → magnetic fields. They are thought to be the source of the intense → gamma-ray bursts that come from → soft gamma repeaters.
Fr.: tache stellaire
A phenomenon similar to a → sunspot but occurring on the surface of a star other than Sun. Due to spatial resolution constraints, starspots so far observed are in general much larger than those on the Sun, up to about 30% of the stellar surface may be covered, corresponding to sizes 100 times greater than those on the Sun.
stimulated star formation
diseš-e gavâlide-ye setâré
Fr.: formation stimulée d'étoiles
A process in which a star is not formed spontaneously but is provoked by the action of external forces, such as pressure and shock on a molecular cloud by close-by → massive stars, → supernova explosions, etc. See also → sequential star formation.
stochastic self-propagating star formation
diseš-e setâregân bâ xod-tuceš-e kâturgin
Fr.: formation d'étoiles par auto-propagation stochastique
A mechanism that could be responsible for global → spiral structure in galaxies either by itself or in conjunction with spiral → density waves. In this mechanism, star formation is caused by → supernova-induced → shocks which compress the → interstellar medium. The → massive stars thus formed may, when they explode, induce further → star formation. If conditions are right, the process becomes self-propagating, resulting in agglomerations of young stars and hot gas which are stretched into spiral shaped features by → differential rotation. Merging of small agglomerations into larger ones may then produce large-scale spiral structure over the entire galaxy. The SSPSF model, first suggested by Mueller & Arnett (1976) was developed by Gerola & Seiden (1978). While the → density wave theory postulates that spiral structure is due to a global property of the galaxy, the SSPSF model examines the alternative viewpoint, namely that spiral structure may be induced by more local processes. The two mechanisms are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but they involve very different approaches to the modeling of galaxy evolution. The SSPSF gives a better fit than the density wave theory to the patchy spiral arms found in many spiral galaxies. However, it cannot explain → galactic bars.
Fr.: étoile sous-lumineuse
A star that is less luminous than a main-sequence star of the same spectral type.
super star cluster
Fr.: super amas stellaire
A group of hundreds to thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume of a few parsecs in size. These objects represent the youngest stage of massive star cluster evolution yet observed. The most massive and dense SSCs, with ages less than 106 years, may be proto globular clusters. SSCs are thought to dissolve within 10 million years and merge into the field star population.
Fr.: étoile super-canonique
supergiant B[e] star (sgB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye abarqul
Fr.: étoile B[e] supergéante
A highly luminous → B[e] star with a luminosity greater than 104L_sun. A number of such objects exist in the → Magellanic Clouds, e.g. LMC R126, R66, SMC R4, and R50. A likely example in our Galaxy is MWC 300.
supermassive neutron star
setâre-ye notroni-ye abar-porjerm
Fr.: étoile à neutron supermassive
Fr.: étoile supermassive
A star with an initial mass over about 120 solar masses. The existence of such stars is the present Universe is not confirmed. Such stars were proposed as an explanation for very bright O type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, but these are now known to be clusters of ordinary O stars. → very massive star; → massive star.
supra-horizontal branch star
setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqi
Fr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale
A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.
symbiotic B[e] star (symB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye hamzi
Fr.: étoile B[e] symbiotique
Fr.: étoile symbiotique
A stellar object whose optical spectrum displays lines characteristic of gases of two very different temperatures, typically of an M star (3500 K) and a B star (20 000 K) superimposed. A symbiotic star is in fact a close binary system.
T Tauri star
Fr.: étoile T Tauri
A member of a class of young stellar objects of roughly 1 solar mass showing strong → infrared excess emission attributed to → circumstellar disks and found within or close to molecular clouds. T Tauri stars are → protostars in the final stages of formation to become a stable → main sequence star. The nuclear reactions in their core have not yet stabilised and the stars are known for the variability of their brightness. See also → classical T Tauri star, → weak-line T Tauri star.
tight star cluster
xuše-ye setâreyi-ye tang
Fr.: amas stellaire serré
A cluster of stars in which members are closely situated so that high resolution observations are required to distinguish them individually.
triggered star formation
diseš-e mâše-yi-ye setâré
Fr.: formation d'étoiles déclanchée
Fr.: étoile triple
A group of three stars visually or physically associated with each other. → triple system.
Fr.: étoile du tournant final de la séquence principale