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pointing model model-e âmâješ Fr.: modèle de pointage A mathematical model that reproduces the diurnal rotation of the Earth and is used to direct a telescope toward a precise position on the sky. |
polar orbiting satellite mâhvâré bâ madâr-e qotbi Fr.: satellite en orbite polaire A satellite that revolves around the Earth in an almost north-south orbit, passing close to both poles. The orbits are sun synchronous, allowing the satellite to cross the equator at the same local time each day. These satellites orbit at a height of 830-880 km and take about 100 minutes to complete a turn around the Earth. |
Poynting vector bordâr-e Poynting Fr.: vecteur de Poynting The amount of electromagnetic energy flowing through unit area, perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation, per unit time, given by (c/2 π)[E x H]. → Poynting's theorem. → Poynting's theorem; → vector. |
Poynting's theorem farbin-e Poynting Fr.: théorème de Poynting The space through which electromagnetic radiation passes is filled with electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation of the radiation. The rate of energy transfer is given by the Poynting vector. In honor of John Henry Poynting (1852-1914), English physicist; → theorem. |
Poynting-Robertson drag kerre-ye Poynting-Robertson Fr.: traînée de Poynting-Robertson A loss of → orbital angular momentum by tiny ring particles associated with their absorption and re-emission of → solar radiation. Also known as the → Poynting-Robertson effect (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). → Poynting-Robertson; → drag. |
Poynting-Robertson effect oskar-e Poynting-Robertson Fr.: effet Poynting-Robertson The effect of → solar radiation on a small (centimeter-sized) particle in → orbit around the Sun that causes it to lose velocity and fall gradually into the Sun. The particle → absorbs solar radiation and → radiates the energy → isotropically in its own frame. The particle thereby preferentially radiates (and loses → angular momentum) in the forward direction in the → inertial frame of the Sun (aberration effect). This leads to a decrease in the particle's angular momentum and causes it to spiral sunward. In contrast, the → Yarkovsky effect is anisotropic; the object may be accelerated or decelerated. → Poynting's theorem; Howard Percy Robertson (1903-1961), American physicist and mathematician; → effect. |
profile fitting method raveš-e sazkard-e farâpâl Fr.: méthode de l'ajustement de profils A method of analysis in which the observed stellar image profiles or spectral line profiles are fitted by model profiles in order to study and derive some properties of the object. |
protactinium protaktiniom Fr.: protactinium A → radioactive → chemical element which is a malleable, shiny silver-gray metal; symbol Pa. → atomic number 91; → mass number of most stable isotope 231; → melting point greater than 1,600°C; → boiling point 4,026°C; calculated → specific gravity 15.37; → valence +4, +5. Protactinium has 24 → isotopes of which only three are found in nature. The most stable is protactinium-231 (→ half-life about 32,500 years); it is also the most common, being found in nature in all uranium ores in about the same abundance as radium. The element was discovered by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, who found one of its isotopes in 1917. It was isolated in 1934, by Aristid von Grosse. Protactinium, literally "parent of actinium," because actinium is a decay product of protactinium, from Gk. protos "first," → proto-, + → actinium. |
pulsating star setâre-ye tapandé (#) Fr.: étoile pulsante A type of → variable star that changes its brightness by changing its volume through expansion and contraction. Classical pulsating stars, including → Cepheids, → RR Lyrae, and → Delta Scuti variables, are located in a quite narrow almost vertical region in the → H-R diagram, known as → instability strip. See also → kappa mechanism. |
pulsating Universe giti-ye tapandé Fr.: Univers oscillatoire Same as → oscillating Universe. |
radiative heating garmeš-e tâbeši Fr.: chauffage radiatif The process by which temperature increases due to an excess of absorbed radiation over emitted radiation. |
radio continuum emission gosil-e peyvastâr-e râdio-yi Fr.: émission de continuum radio A → continuum emission with frequencies in the radio range of the electromagnetic spectrum. |
radioactive dating sen yâbi-ye partow-žirâ Fr.: datation radioactive Determining the age of an object from the → radioactive decay of its constituting material. The technique consists of comparing the → abundance ratio of a → radioactive isotope to its → decay product. This will yield the number of half-lives that have occurred since the sample was formed. More specifically, if an object is made up of 50 % decay product then it has gone through 1 → half-life. 75% decay product equals 2 half-lives, 87.5% decay product equals 3 half-lives, 93.76% decay product equals 4 half-lives, and so on. For example, the decay product of → uranium-238 (^{238}U) is → lead-206 (^{206}Pb). The half-life of ^{238}U is 4.5 billion years. Hence, if the sample has gone through two half-lives, it is 9 billion years old. See also: → radiocarbon dating. → radioactive; → dating. |
radiocarbon dating senn yâbi-ye partow-karboni Fr.: datation au radiocarbone A radioactive dating technique, applied to organic materials, which measures the content of the radioactive isotope of carbon ^{14}C. The radioactive carbon isotopes created by the impact of cosmic rays with the nitrogen atoms of the atmosphere find their way, via carbon dioxide and photosynthesis, into living material. When an organic material dies it ceases to acquire further ^{14}C atoms, and its ^{14}C fraction declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of ^{14}C. Comparing the remaining ^{14}C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric ^{14}C allows the age of the sample to be estimated. → radiocarbon; → dating. |
radiometric dating senn yâbi-ye tâbeš-sanjik, ~ tâbeš-sanji Fr.: datation radiométrique A dating method that uses measurements of certain radioactive isotopes to calculate the ages in years (absolute age) of rocks and minerals. → radiometer; → dating. |
rapidly oscillating Ap star Fr.: étoile Ap à oscillation rapide A chemically peculiar star characterized by the presence of high-frequency non-radial oscillations, with periods that range between about 4 and 16 min. These variations have periods from about 5 to 20 minutes and low amplitudes (B < 10 mmag). They are consistent with acoustic (→ p mode) pulsations of low degree and high radial overtone. |
recombination continuum peyvastâr-e bâzmiyâzeš Fr.: continuum de recombinaison A recombination radiation that is continuous over a range of frequencies. Same as → continuum emission. → recombination; → continuum. |
reflecting circle dâyere-ye bâztâbi Fr.: cercle à réflexion An instrument for measuring angular distances, based on the same principle as the → octant, but with a full circular limb divided into 720°. It was invented in 1752 by the German astronomer Johann Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) to improve on the octant which often gave wrong results because of incorrect graduations. The instrument consisted of an index arm and a small telescope, both pivoted centrally. In practice, the index arm is first set to zero, and the telescope rotated until the two images of a star are seen in coincidence (the one directly, the other by double reflection). Then the index arm is freed, and rotated until the other object is seen in coincidence after double reflection. The angle has now been measured, but the double operation is repeated several times, and the final angle divided by the number of repetitions to find a mean value. Hence, the instrument was sometimes called a "repeating circle." The reflecting circle had little success because it was heavy and uncomfortable to use. Its improved form is called → Borda circle. → reflection; → circle. |
reflecting telescope teleskop-e bâztâbi (#), durbin-e ~ (#) Fr.: télescope réflecteur A telescope in which the image is produced by reflection of light by a concave mirror. |
refracting šekast; šekastgar Fr.: réfraction; à réfraction 1) The action or result of the verb → refract. |
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