An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 935
Arago point
  نقطه‌ی ِ آراگو   
noqte-ye Arago

Fr.: point d'Arago   

A → neutral point located at about 20° above the → antisolar point.

Named for François Arago (1786-1853), French physicist; → point


Fr.: arbitraire   

1) Based on individual will or choice rather than by reason or necessity.
2) Math.: Undetermined; of unspecified value. → arbitrary constant.

M.E., from O.Fr. arbitraire or directly from L. arbitrarius "depending on the will, uncertain," from → ad- "to" + baetere "to come, go."

Kâmsar, literally "at one's will," from kâm "desire, wish; cause, reason," → despite, + sar "person, individual," originally "→ head."

arbitrary constant
  پایای ِ کامسر   
pâyâ-ye kâmsar

Fr.: constante arbitraire   

A constant quantity in → equations which takes various values but which remains unaffected by the changes in the values of the → variables of the equation. Most → differential equations have more than one → solution. In general, the number of arbitrary constants of an ordinary differential equation is given by the → order of the highest → derivative.

arbitrary; → constant.


Fr.: arborescence   

1) In → graph theory, a → rooted tree that has a natural orientation in which all → paths are directed away from the → root. More specifically, a → directed graph in which, for a → vertex u, called the → root, and any other vertex v, there is exactly one → directed path from u to v.
2) Biology: The state of being branched, or treelike, in structure, appearance, growth, or other properties.

From Fr. arborescence, from → arborescent + → -ance.

Šâkedâri, nous from šâkedâr, → arborescent.


Fr.: arborescent   

Having the shape or characteristics of a tree in growth, structure, or appearance.

From Fr. arborescent, from L. arborescent-, p.p. of arborescere "to grow into a tree," from arbor, arboris "tree."

Šâkedâr "having branches," from šâké, from šâxé, → branch, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," → charged.

kamân (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) General: Something shaped like a → curve or → arch.
2) Math.: A → segment of a → circle.
3) Electricity: A continuous luminous → discharge across a gap between two → electrodes, as in an arc lamp. → electric arc.
4) Astro.: The apparent path of a celestial body above and below the horizon.

M.E. ark, from M.Fr. arc "bow," from L. arcus "bow, arch" (cf. Goth. arhwazna "arrow," O.E. earh), PIE *arqu- "bowed, curved."

Kamân "arc, bow" from Mid.Pers. kamân, related to xam "curve," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent," Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint," L. campus "a field," Lith. kampus "corner," PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."

arc minute
  کمان-دقیقه، دقیقه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-daqiqé, daqiqe-ye kamâni

Fr.: minute de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.

arc; → minute.

arc of light
  کمان ِ نور   
kamân-e nur

Fr.: arc de lumière   

The apparent angular separation (→ elongation) between the → centers of the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → light.

arc of separation
  کمان ِ جدایی   
kamân-e jodâyi

Fr.: arc de séparation   

The difference in → right ascension between the → Sun and the → Moon, measured in degrees.

arc; → separation.

arc of vision
  کمان ِ دید   
kamân-e did

Fr.: arc de vision   

The → angular  → difference in → altitude between the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → vision.

arc second
  کمان-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni

Fr.: seconde de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.

arc; → second.

arc spectrum
  بیناب ِ کمان   
binâb-e kamân

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.

arc; → spectrum.

tâq (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) A curved structure, normally in the vertical plane, that spans an opening.
2) Any overhead curvature resembling an arch. → Arches cluster.

M.E. arch(e), from O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus "a bow," → arc.

Taq "arch," from tâk, contraction of târak, → vertex.

arch of foot
  تاغ ِ پا   
tâq-e pâ

Fr.: arche du pied   

Any of the four vaulted structures in the foot: the internal (medial) longitudinal, the outer (lateral) longitudinal, and two transverse (Medical Dictionary, Farlex).

arch; → foot.


Fr.: archéoastronomie   

The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.

Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.

Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.

sar- (#)

Fr.: arché-, archi   

A prefix meaning "principal, prior, original, first, early" Same as archi-. → archetype.

From Gk. arkhe-, from arckhon "ruler," noun use of p.p. of arkhein "to rule."

Sar-, from sar "top, summit, the capital of a pillar," → head.

Arches cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ تاقها   
xuše-ye tâqhâ

Fr.: amas des Arches   

One of the three → Galactic center clusters supposed to be the densest young → massive star cluster in the Milky Way. It contains the richest collection of → O stars and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars in any cluster in the Galaxy, thus representing the largest collection of the most massive stars in the Galaxy. With its estimated age of 2-3 million years, the Arches cluster is the youngest of the massive clusters in the Galactic center. → Quintuplet cluster; → Central cluster (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

Arches, from the presence of Galactic center thermal → arched filaments, about 100 → light-years in projection from the Galactic center (Morris & Yusef-Zadeh, 1985, AJ 90, 2511), from M.E. arche, O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus, → arc; → cluster.

sarnemun (#)

Fr.: archétype   

The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype (

arche-; → type.

Archimedes' principle
  پروز ِ ارشمیدوس   
parvaz-e Arašmidos

Fr.: principe d'Archimède   

A body immersed totally or partially in a liquid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. → buoyancy.

Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC - c. 212 BC), Greek mathematician and inventor; → principle.

Arašmidos altered form of Archimedes in classical Ar. texts; parvaz, → principle.

mehrâzik (#)

Fr.: architecture   

1) The art or practice of designing and building structures.
2) Computers: The arrangement of the various devices in a computer system or network. See also → software architecture.

M.E., from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus "architect," from Gk. arkhitekton "master builder, director of works," from arkhi- "chief" + tekton "builder, carpenter," → technique.

Mehrâzik, from mehrâz literally "chief mason," from meh- "great, large," → high, + râz "mason, builder" (Borhân-e Qâte'), from Mid.Pers. râz "builder, architect," probably related to O.Pers. râs-, Av. râz- "to direct, set, put in line" (with many cognates in Pers., such as râst "straight, direct, true;" raj, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"); cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -ik, → -ics.

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