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argument of perihelion âruzmân-e pirâhur Fr.: argument du périhélie The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis. → argument; → perihelion. |
argumentation âruzeš Fr.: argumentation The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments. Noun from → argument. |
argumentative âruzmângin Fr.: raisonneur 1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute. |
arid kamâb (#) Fr.: aride Lacking sufficient water or rainfall. L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow". Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water". |
aridity kamâbi (#) Fr.: aridité A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture. Aridity, noun from → arid. Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid. |
Ariel (Uranus I) Ariel (#) Fr.: Ariel A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days. Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest. |
Aries Barré (#) Fr.: Bélier The Ram. A constellation of the → Zodiac,
representing a ram (R.A. = L. aries "ram," perhaps akin to Gk. eriphos "a kid, a young goat," O.Ir. heirp "she-goat;" cf. Lith. erytis, O.C.S. jarici, Arm. oroj "lamb." Barré "ram, sheep; Aries" from Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb,
ram; Aries," compare with Av. varənâ- "wool," Skt.
urana, urabhra "wool-beared = |
Aristarchus' inequality nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is. Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality. |
Aristotelian form dise-ye Arastuyi Fr.: forme aristotelienne Any of the four main → proposition
forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism: Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC); → form. |
arithmetic hesâb (#) Fr.: arithmétique A branch of mathematics that deals usually with integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See also → compute, → computation, → count, → calculate, → calculus, → mathematics, → statistics. O.Fr. arsmetique, from M.L. arithmetica, from Gk. arithmetike (tekhne) "(art, skill) of numbers," from arithmos "number." Hesâb, from Ar. hisab. |
arithmetic mean miyângin hesâbi (#) Fr.: moyenne arithmétique Of n numbers a_{1}, a_{2}, ..., a_{n}, the quantity defined as: (a_{1} + a_{2} + ... + a_{n})/n. → arithmetic; → mean. |
arithmetic progression farâyâzi-yz hesâbi (#) Fr.: progression arithmétique A → sequence of n numbers or quantities such that the difference between any two successive terms is a constant. In particular, if a is the first term, the nth term is a + (n - 1)d, where d is the constant. Also called → arithmetic sequence. → arithmetic; → progression. |
arithmetic sequence peyâye-ye hesâbi Fr.: suite arithmétique → arithmetic; → sequence. |
arm bâzu (#) Fr.: bras A slender part of a structure projecting from a main part, such as a → spiral arm. → Orion Arm; → Perseus Arm; → Scutum-Crux Arm. From O.E. earm "arm," from P.Gmc. *armaz (cf. M.Du., Ger. Arm, O.N. armr, O.Fris. erm), from PIE base *ar- "to fit, join;" cf. Mod.Pers. arm "arm, from the elbow to the shoulder;" Av. arma-, arəmo- "arm;" Skt. irma- "arm;" Gk. arthron "a joint;" L. armus "shoulder." Bâzu "arm," from Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" Mod.Pers. bâhu "stick, staff; arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm"). |
armillary sphere zâtolhelaq (#) Fr.: sphère armillaire An ancient instrument, used since ancient times until the Middle ages and later, to determine positions of celestial bodies. It consisted of an assemblage of rings, all circles of the same sphere, designed to represent the positions of the important circles of the celestial sphere. L. armillarius, from armilla "arm ring, bracelet," from armus "arm" + → sphere. Zâtolhelaq from Ar. "multi-ringed," from zât "holder, keeper" + helaq "rings," from halqah "ring." |
Arnett's rule razan-e Arnett Fr.: règle d'Arnett The → peak luminosity of a → Type Ia supernova is proportional to the rate of → radioactive decay and hence directly proportional to the mass of ^{56}Ni. Arnett, W. D. 1982, ApJ, 253, 785; → rule. |
aromatic aromatik Fr.: aromatique Chemistry: Of, relating to, or containing the six-carbon ring typical of the benzene (C_{6}H_{6}) series and related organic groups. M.E. aromatyk, from M.Fr. aromatique, from L. aromaticus, from Gk. aromatikos, from aroma "seasoning, sweet spice," of unknown origin. |
aromatic compound candsâxt-e aromâtik Fr.: composé aromatique An organic compound which contains benzene rings in its structure. The simplest is therefore benzene (C_{6}H_{6}). Aromatic compounds have a planar ring of atoms linked by alternate single and double bounds. |
Aromatic Infrared Band (AIB) bând-e forusorx-e aromâtik Fr.: bande infrarouge aromatique A family of strong infrared emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm which are widely observed in a large variety of objects, such as → H II regions, → reflection nebulae, → planetary nebulae, and the → diffuse interstellar medium of our galaxy and other galaxies. Solar system objects, such as carbonaceous → meteorites and → interplanetary dust particles are also known to display these features. They are suggested to be due to → polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. |
arrange rezgidan Fr.: arranger, ranger 1) To set in a rank or row. To put in order. From M.E. arayngen, from M.Fr. arangier, from O.Fr. arengier, from a- "to," → ad-, + rangier "set in a row," from rang, → rank. Rezgidan "to set in a row," from Lori rezg "row," related to râst, → right, Av. rāz- "to direct, draw a line;" probably ultimately from Proto-Ir. *Hrazaka- "row." |
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