An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 492
bin
  ۱) باوین؛ ۲) باوینیدن   
1) bâvin; 2) bâvinidan

Fr.: 1) bin; 2) binner   

1a) General:A box or enclosed space for storing grain, coal, or the like.
1b) Electronics: In a → CCD detector, a square or rectangular group of adjacent → pixels used collectively to transport the → electron charges.
1c) In a statistical → histogram, the range of → distribution → intervals. The bin widths (or the number of bins) affect a histogram.
2) To place in a → bin; to create → binning.

M.E. binne, O.E. binn(e) "manger, crib," perhaps from O.Celt. *benna, akin to Welsh benn "a cart, especially one with a woven wicker body." The same Celtic word seems to be preserved in It. benna "dung cart," Fr. benne "a sort of box for transporting materials, especially in mines," Du. benne "large basket," from L.L. benna.

Bâvin "a basket, more precisely a small basket which contains the cotton to be spun;" bâvinidan infinitive from bâvin.

binarity
  درینی   
dorini

Fr.: binarité   

The quality or condition of being binary.

binary; → -ity.

binary
  درین، دودویی   
dorin, dodoyi (#)

Fr.: binaire   

General: Characterized by or consisting of two parts or components.
Math.: Of or relating to a system of numeration having 2 as its base.
Astro.: Physically associated pair of astronomical objects.

Binary, from L.L. binarius, from bini "two-by-two," from bis "twice, two times;" cf. Av. biš- "twice," bi- "two," Mod.Pers. do "two," PIE *dwo- "two."

Dorin, from Mid.Pers. dorin "double, pair," from do (Av. dva-, Skt. dvi-, Gk. duo, L. duo, E. two, Der. zwei, Fr. deux) "two" + rin "time, turn."
Dodoyi "two-by-two," from do, → two.

binary arithmetic
  حساب ِ درین، ~ دودو‌یی   
hesâb-e dorin, ~ dodoi (#)

Fr.: arithmétique binaire   

A system of calculation in which the only numerals used are 0 and 1. All the real numbers are represented in terms of powers of 2.

binary; → arithmetic.

binary asteroid
  سیارک ِ درین   
sayyârak-e dorin

Fr.: astéroïde binaire   

A member of a population of double objects in the main → Asteroid Belt or the → Kuiper Belt which are gravitationally bound together. So far about 200 such binary systems have been identified, while their number is increasing. 243 Ida was the first binary asteroid to be discovered during the Galileo spacecraft flyby in 1993. Other examples are → Antiope and Kalliope in the main belt and QG298 in the Kuiper Belt. The importance of these objects resides in the fact that systems with well measured orbital parameters allow the total mass to be estimated. If the sizes of the components are known then their densities can be accurately calculated. Density is an important parameter since it yields information about composition and internal structure.

binary; → asteroid.

binary black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ درین   
siyah câl-e dorin

Fr.: trou noir binaire   

A → binary system consisting of two → black holes in close orbit around each other. Same as → black hole binary.

binary; → black; → hole.

binary digit (bit)
  رقم ِ درین، ~ دودو‌یی، بیت   
raqam-e dorin, ~ dodoi, bit

Fr.: chiffre binaire   

Either of the digits 0 or 1, used in the → binary number system.

binary, → digit.

binary frequency
  بسامد ِ درین‌ها   
basâmad-e dorinhâ

Fr.: fréquence des binaires   

The fraction of stars that have at least one → companion. It is at least 50%. The binary fraction appears to increase with increasing → primary star mass, at least among the more massive stars: the → O stars and → B stars have a companion frequency of at least 70%, while for the → G stars the binary frequency is around 50% and the → M stars may have an even lower binary frequency of around 30-40%. Brown dwarfs are rare as companions to lower-main-sequence stars, although brown-dwarf binaries appear not to be rare. An increase in binary frequency with mass would be expected if most stars form in → multiple systems that disintegrate, since the more massive stars would then preferentially remain in binaries while the less massive ones would preferentially be ejected as single stars (see Richard B. Larson, 2001, in IAU Symposium 200, p. 93 and references therein).

binary; → frequency.

binary galaxy
  کهکشان ِ درین   
kahkašân-e dorin

Fr.: galaxie binaire   

A pair of galaxies in orbit around each other.

binary; → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy; dorinbinary.

binary number system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ درینی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye dirini

Fr.: système des nombres binaires   

A → numeral system that has 2 as its base and uses only two digits, 0 and 1. The positional value of each digit in a binary number is twice the place value of the digit of its right side. Each binary digit is known as a bit. The decimal numbers from 0 to 10 are thus in binary 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, and 1010. And, for example, the binary number 111012 represents the decimal number (1 × 24) + (1 × 23) + (1 × 22) + (0 × 21) + (1 × 20), or 29. In electronics, binary numbers are the flow of information in the form of zeros and ones used by computers. Computers use it to manipulate and store all of their data including numbers, words, videos, graphics, and music.

binary; → number; → system.

binary operation
  آپارش ِ درین   
âpâreš-e dorin

Fr.: opération binaire   

A mathematical operation that combines two numbers, quantities, sets, etc., to give a third. For example, multiplication of two numbers is a binary operation.
A binary operation * on a set S is → commutative if a * b = b * a for all a, bS.
A binary operation * on a set S is → associative if (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) for all a, b, cS.

binary; → operation.

binary pulsar
  پولسار ِ درین، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e dorin, tapâr-e ~

Fr.: pulsar binaire   

A pulsar in a → binary system, the companion of which often being a → neutron star or a → white dwarf. The only known binary system with two pulsars components is the → double pulsar. As of 2010 about 70 binary pulsars have been identified. They are ideal laboratories for testing and studying the effects predicted by → general relativity, such as → spin precession, → Shapiro time delay, and → gravitational waves. The prototype, called PSR 1913+16, was discovered in 1974 by Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1993. → Hulse-Taylor pulsar.

binary; → pulsar.

binary star
  ستاره‌ی ِ درین   
setâre-ye dorin

Fr.: étoile binaire   

Two stars gravitationally bound to each other, so that they revolve around their common center of gravity. → double star; → spectroscopic binary.

binary; → star.

Setâré, → star; dorin, → binary.

binary supermassive black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ ابر-پرجرم ِ درین   
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dorin

Fr.: trou noir supermassif double   

A → dual supermassive black hole whose components are separated by a few parsecs.

binary; → supermassive; → black; → hole.

binary system
  راژمان ِ درین   
râžmân-e dorin

Fr.: système binaire   

Two astronomical objects revolving around their common center of mass.

binary; → system.

Râžmân, → system; dorinbinary.

binary tree
  درخت ِ درین   
deraxt-e dorin

Fr.: arbre binaire   

In → graph theory, an → ordered tree with all → nodes having at most two → children.

binary; → tree.

bind
  بندیدن   
bandidan (#)

Fr.: lier   

To tie, to fasten, to cause ti stick together.

O.E. bindan "to tie up with bonds," PIE base *bhendh- "to bind;" cf. Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," bandhah "a tying, bandage."

Bandidan "to bind, confine" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ], from band "band, tie" + -idan infinitive suffix; cognate with E. bind, as explained above.

binding energy
  کاروژ ِ بندش، ~ همگیری   
kâruž-e bandeš, ~ hamgiri

Fr.: énergie de liaison   

1) Of a gravitational system, the difference in energies between the hypothetical state where all bodies of the system are infinitely separated from each other and the actual bound state.
2) The energy which must be supplied to a nucleus in order to cause it to decompose into its constituent neutrons and protons.

Binding, noun from → bind; → energy.

Kâruž, → energy; bandeš noun from bandidan, → bind.

binning
  باوینش   
bâvineš

Fr.: binage   

Combining a few adjacent CCD pixels in bins, during readout; the method used to assemble the bins and transfer the charge by means of an electronic clock. Binning improves signal-to-noise ratio at the expense of spatial resolution.

Binning, from → bin.

Bâvineš, from bâvin, → bin.

binoculars
  دوچشمی، دوربین ِ ~   
docašmi (#), durbin-e ~ (#)

Fr.: binoculaire   

A small optical instrument with two tubes that is used to magnify the view of distant or astronomical objects. → prism binoculars.

From Fr. binoculaire, from binocle, from L. bini "double" (L. bis, bi- "twice," Av. biš "twice") + ocularis "of the eye," from oculus "eye" (compare with Av. axš-, aš- "eye," Skt. akshi- "eye," Gk. ops "eye," opsis "sight, appearance," from PIE okw- "to see;" also O.E. ege, eage, from P.Gmc. *augon, Goth. augo, Lith. akis, Armenian aku).

Docašmi "binocular," from do, → two + cašm, → eye, + -i adj. suffix; durbin, → telescope.

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