# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 492
 binomial   دونامین   donâminFr.: 1) binôme; 2) binomial   1a) An algebraic expression containing 2 terms, as x + y and 2x2 - 3x. In other words, a → polynomial with 2 terms. 1b) Biology: A pair of Latin (or latinized) words forming a scientific name for organisms. The first word represents the genus, and the second the species. 2) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of a binomial.From L.L. binomi(us) "having two names," + → -al, → nominal. binomial coefficient   همگر ِ دونامین   hamgar-e donâminFr.: coefficient binomial   The factor multiplying the variable in a term of a → binomial expansion. For example, in (x + y)4 = x4 + 4x3y + 6x2y2 + 4xy3 + y4 the binomial coefficients are 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1. In general, the r-th binomial coefficient in the expression (x + y)n is: (n,r) = n!/[r!(n - r)!].→ binomial; → coefficient. binomial differential   دگرسانه‌ی ِ دونامین   degarsâne-ye donâminFr.: binôme différentiel   An expression of the form xm(a + bxn)pdx, where m, n, p, a, and b are constants.→ binomial; → differential. binomial distribution   واباژش ِ دونامین   vâbâžeš-e donâminFr.: distribution binomiale   A probability distribution for independent events for which there are only two possible outcomes i.e., success and failure. The probability of x successes in n trials is: P(x) = [n!/x!(n - x)!] px.qn - x, where p is the probability of success and q = 1 - p the probability of failure on each trial. These probabilities are given in terms of the → binomial theorem expansion of (p + q)n.→ binomial; → distribution. binomial expansion   گسترش ِ دونامین   gostareš-e donâminFr.: expansion binomiale   A rule for the expansion of an expression of the form (x + y)n. The variables x and y can be any → real numbers and n is an → integer. The general formula is known as the → binomial theorem.→ binomial; → expansion. binomial nomenclature   نامگذاری ِ دونامین   nâmgozâri-ye donâminFr.: nomenclature binomiale   A system introduced by Carl von Linné (1707-1778), the Swedish botanist, in which each organism is identified by two names. The first is the name of the genus (generic name), written with a capital letter. The second is the name of the species (specific name). The generic and specific names are in Latin and are printed in italic type. For example, human beings belong to species Homo sapiens.→ binomial; → nomenclature. binomial theorem   فربین ِ دونامین   farbin-e donâminFr.: théorème du binôme   A rule for writing an equivalent expansion of an expression such as (a + b)n without having to perform all multiplications involved. → binomial expansion. The general expression is (a + b)n = &Sigma (n,k)akbn - k, where the summation is from k = 0 to n, and (n,k) = n!/[r!(n - k)!]. For n = 2, (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2. Historically, the binomial theorem as applied to (a + b)2 was known to Euclid (320 B.C.) and other early Greek mathematicians. In the tenth century the Iranian mathematician Karaji (953-1029) knew the binomial theorem and its accompanying table of → binomial coefficients, now known as → Pascal's triangle. Subsequently Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) asserted that he could find the 4th, 5th, 6th, and higher roots of numbers by a special law which did not depend on geometric figures. Khayyam's treatise concerned with his findings is lost. In China there appeared in 1303 a work containing the binomial coefficients arranged in triangular form. The complete generalization of the binomial theorem for all values of n, including negative integers, was established by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).→ binomial; → theorem. bio-   زیست-   zist- (#)Fr.: bio-   Bio-, Gk., from bios "life," from PIE base *gweie- "to live;" cf. O.Pers./Av. gay- "to live," Av. gaya- "life," gaeθâ- "being, world, mankind," jivya-, jva- "aliving, alive," Skt. jivah "alive, living;" Mid.Pers. zivastan "to live," zivik, zivandag "alive, living," L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life," O.E. cwic "alive," E. quick, Lith. gyvas "living, alive."Zist "life, existence," from zistan "to live," Mid.Pers. zivastan "to live," zivižn "life," O.Pers./Av. gay-, as explained above. bioastronomy   زیست‌اخترشناسی   zistaxtaršenâsi (#)Fr.: bioastronomie   A common branch of astronomy and biology dealing with the study of life throughout the Universe; synonymous with → astrobiology and → exobiology.Bioastronomy, from → bio- + → astronomy.Zistaxtaršenâsi, from zist-, → bio-, + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy. biodiversity   زیست‌گوناگونی   zistgunâguniFr.: biodiversité   The → variety of → plant and → animal → species in a particular → environment.→ bio-; → diversity. bioinformatics   زیست-ازداییک   zist-azdâyikFr.: bioinformatique   The retrieval and analysis of biochemical and biological data using mathematics and computer science, as in the study of genomes (Dictionary.com).→ bio-; → informatics. biologist   زیست‌شناس   zistšenâs (#)Fr.: biologiste   An expert or specialist in biology.Biologist, from → biology + → -ist. biology   زیست‌شناسی   zistženâsi (#)Fr.: biologie   The study of living organisms and their interactions with the non living world.Biology, from → bio- + → -logy. bioluminescence   زیست-فروزستی   zist-foruzestiFr.: bioluminescence   The production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction (→ chemiluminescence). In other words, bioluminescence is chemiluminescence from living organisms. It is widespread in the marine environment, but rare in terrestrial and especially freshwater environments.→ chemi-; → luminescence. biomarker   زیست-داجگر   zist-dâjgarFr.: biomarqueur   A biologic feature that is measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. For example, prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker for cancer of the prostate.→ bio-; → marker. biophysicist   زیست‌فیزیکدان   zistfizikdân (#)Fr.: biophysicien   A specialist in → biophysics.→ bio-; → physicist. biophysics   زیست‌فیزیک   zistfizik (#)Fr.: biophysique   The science that deals with biological structures and processes involving the application of physical principles and methods.Biophysics, from → bio- + → physics.Zistfizik, from zist-, → bio- + fizik→ physics. biosphere   زیست‌سپهر   zistsepehr (#)Fr.: biosphère   The part of a planet or moon within which life can occur. It may include the crust, oceans, and atmosphere.Biosphere, from → bio- + → sphere.Zistsepehr, from zizt-, → bio-, + sepehr→ sphere. Biot-Savart law   قانون ِ بی‌یو-ساوار   qânun-e Biot-Savart (#)Fr.: loi de Biot-Savart   The → magnetic field due to → electric current flowing in a long straight conductor is directly proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the distance of the point of observation from the conductor. The law is derivable from → Ampere's law, but was obtained experimentally by the authors.Named after the French physicists Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862) and Félix Savart (1791-1841); → law. biotic environment   پرگیر ِ زیستیک   pargir-e zistikFr.: environnement biotique   Ecology: The environment consisting of living organisms, which interact with each other and with their non-living surroundings.Biotic adj. of → biotics; of → environment.