Fr.: distribution de Bose-Einstein
âmâr-e Bose-Einstein (#)
Fr.: statistique de Bose-Einstein
Same as → Bose-Einstein distribution.
Any of a class of particles (such as the → photon, → pion, or → alpha particle) that have zero or integral → spin and do not obey the → Pauli exclusion principle. The energy distribution of bosons is described by → Bose-Einstein statistics. See also: → gauge boson, → Higgs boson, → W boson, → Z boson, → intermediate boson.
Boson, in honor of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974).
From botanic, from Fr. botanique, M.L. botanicus, from Gk. botanikos "of herbs," from botane "herb, grass, pasture."
Botein (δ Ari)
Botein, from Ar. Al-Butain "the little belly."
Boteyn, from Ar. Al-Butain.
From O.Fr. bo(u)teille, from L.L. butticula diminutive of L. buttis "a cask."
Botri, loan from Fr. bouteille or E. bottle, as above.
tah (#), pâyin (#)
Fr.: bas, fond
M.E. botme; O.E. botm, bodan "ground, soil, lowest part" (cf. O.Fris. boden "soil," O.N. botn, O.H.G. bodam, Ger. Boden "ground, earth, soil"), akin to Pers. bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning;" Av. būna- "base, depth" (Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree;" Gk. pythmen "foundation;" L. fundus "bottom, piece of land, farm," O.Ir. bond "sole of the foot").
Tah "bottom; end"
(Mid.Pers. tah "bottom." The origin of this term is not clear.
It may be related to PIE *tenegos "water bottom;" cf.
Gk. tenagos "bottom, swamp," Latvian tigas, from *tingas, from
bottom-up structure formation
diseš-e sâxtâr az pâyin bé bâlâ
Fr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut
1) bandidé; 2) karân
Fr.: lié; lien
Fr.: charge liée
Any electric charge which is bound to an atom or molecule, in contrast to free charge, such as metallic conduction electrons, which is not. Also known as → polarization charge.
Fr.: amas lié
A cluster of astronomical objects, such as stars or galaxies, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. → bound system.
Fr.: occurrence liée
Fr.: orbite liée
The orbit described by an object around a central gravitational force in a system whose total energy is negative. An elliptical orbit.
Fr.: système lié
A system composed of several material bodies the total energy of which (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) is negative, e.g. a → bound cluster.
Fr.: transition liée-liée
Fr.: transition liée-libre
Fr.: limite, bord
Something that indicates a border or limit; the border or limit so indicated.
From Fr., from O.Fr. bodne, from M.L. bodina, butina "boundary, boundary marker."
Karân, karâné, kenâr from Mid.Pers. karânag, Av. karana- "boundary."
butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâni
Fr.: conditions à la limite
1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation.
In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant
of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions
necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation.
Fr.: effet de bords
An effect that forbids or invalidate locally the use of an idealized model of a system in which one or several of its dimensions are supposed to be infinite.
Fr.: couche limite
A layer of fluid that is formed wherever a fluid flows past a solid surface and the effects of → viscosity are important. The boundary level forms because as the fluid moves past the object, the molecules which are in direct contact with the surface stick to the surface. The molecules just above the surface are slowed down in their collisions with the molecules sticking to the surface. These molecules in turn slow down the flow just above them, but less effectively. This creates a thin layer of fluid near the surface in which the velocity changes from zero at the surface to the free stream value away from the surface. The boundary layer may be either → laminar or → turbulent in character, depending on the value of the → Reynolds number. The concept of boundary level was first put forward by Ludwig Prandlt (1875-1953) in 1904.