# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 493
 Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)   چگالش ِ بوز-اینشتین   cagâleš-e Bose-EinsteinFr.: condensation de Bose-Einstein   A → quantum phase transition during which the → bosons constituting a sufficiently cooled boson gas are all clustered in the → ground energy state. The phase transition results in a → Bose-Einstein condensate. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature becomes smaller than a critical value given by: Tc = (2πħ2 / km)(n / 2.612)2/3, where m is mass of each boson, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and n is the particle number density. When T  ≤  Tc, the → de Broglie wavelength of bosons becomes comparable to the distance between bosons.→ boson; → Einstein; → condensation. Bose-Einstein distribution   واباژش ِ بوز-اینشتین   vâbâžeš-e Bose-EinsteinFr.: distribution de Bose-Einstein   For a → population of independent → bosons, a function that specifies the number of particles in each of the allowed → energy states.→ boson; → Einstein; → distribution. Bose-Einstein statistics   آمار ِ بوز-اینشتین   âmâr-e Bose-Einstein (#)Fr.: statistique de Bose-Einstein   Same as → Bose-Einstein distribution.→ boson; → Einstein; → statistics. boson   بوسون   boson (#)Fr.: boson   Any of a class of particles (such as the → photon, → pion, or → alpha particle) that have zero or integral → spin and do not obey the → Pauli exclusion principle. The energy distribution of bosons is described by → Bose-Einstein statistics. See also: → gauge boson, → Higgs boson, → W boson, → Z boson, → intermediate boson.Boson, in honor of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). botany   گیاهشناسی   giyâhšenâsi (#)Fr.: botanique   The branch of → biology that deals with → plants.From botanic, from Fr. botanique, M.L. botanicus, from Gk. botanikos "of herbs," from botane "herb, grass, pasture."Giyâhšenâsi, from giyâh, → plant, + šenâsi, → -logy. Botein (δ Ari)   بطین   Boteyn (#)Fr.: Botein   A dim, red star in the constellation → Aries; a → giant of → spectral type K2 III at a distance of 168 light-years.Botein, from Ar. Al-Butain "the little belly."Boteyn, from Ar. Al-Butain. bottle   بطری   botri (#)Fr.: bouteille   A portable vessel for liquids, typically cylindrical and often of glass or plastic with a narrow neck that can be closed. → magnetic bottle, → Leyden jar.From O.Fr. bo(u)teille, from L.L. butticula diminutive of L. buttis "a cask."Botri, loan from Fr. bouteille or E. bottle, as above. bottom   ته، پایین   tah (#), pâyin (#)Fr.: bas, fond   1) The lowest or deepest part of anything, as distinguished from the → top. The under or lower side; underside. → bottom-up structure formation. 2) → bottom quark.M.E. botme; O.E. botm, bodan "ground, soil, lowest part" (cf. O.Fris. boden "soil," O.N. botn, O.H.G. bodam, Ger. Boden "ground, earth, soil"), akin to Pers. bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning;" Av. būna- "base, depth" (Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree;" Gk. pythmen "foundation;" L. fundus "bottom, piece of land, farm," O.Ir. bond "sole of the foot").Tah "bottom; end" (Mid.Pers. tah "bottom." The origin of this term is not clear. It may be related to PIE *tenegos "water bottom;" cf. Gk. tenagos "bottom, swamp," Latvian tigas, from *tingas, from *tenegos "depth"). Pâyin "bottom, below; at the foot of," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis (Fr. pied); P.Gmc. *fot (E. foot; Ger. Fuss); PIE *pod-/*ped-); + -in a relation suffix. bottom-up structure formation   دیسش ِ ساختار از پایین به بالا   diseš-e sâxtâr az pâyin bé bâlâFr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut   A → structure formation scenario in which small galaxies form first, and larger structures are then formed in due course. Contrary to → top-down structure formation.→ bottom; → up; → structure; → formation; → galaxy. bound   ۱) بندیده؛ ۲) کران   1) bandidé; 2) karânFr.: lié; lien   1) (adj.) Tied, confined by bonds. → bound cluster, → bound charge, → bound system. 2) (n) a boundary; a limit.1) p.p. of → bind. 2) → boundary. bound charge   بارِ بندیده   bâr-e bandidéFr.: charge liée   Any electric charge which is bound to an atom or molecule, in contrast to free charge, such as metallic conduction electrons, which is not. Also known as → polarization charge.→ bound; → charge. bound cluster   خوشه‌ی ِ بندیده   xuše-ye bandidéFr.: amas lié   A cluster of astronomical objects, such as stars or galaxies, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. → bound system.Bound, p.p. of → bind; → cluster.Xušé, → cluster; bandidé p.p. of bandidan, → bind. bound occurrence   رخداد ِ بندیده   roxdâd-e bandidéFr.: occurrence liée   Any → occurrence of a → variable  x in an x-bound part of a → wff.→ bound; → occurrence. bound orbit   مدار ِ بندیده   madâr-e bandidéFr.: orbite liée   The orbit described by an object around a central gravitational force in a system whose total energy is negative. An elliptical orbit.Bound, p.p. of → bind; → orbit.Madâr, → orbit; bandidé, p.p. of bandidan, → bind. bound system   راژمان ِ بندیده   râžmân-e bandidéFr.: système lié   A system composed of several material bodies the total energy of which (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) is negative, e.g. a → bound cluster.Bound, p.p. of → bind; → system.Aâžmân, → system; bandidé p.p. of bandidan, → bind. bound-bound transition   گذرش ِ بندیده-بندیده   gozareš-e bandidé-bandidéFr.: transition liée-liée   A transition between two energy levels of an electron bound to a nucleus. The electron remains tied to the nucleus before and after the transition. → bound-free transition; → free-free emission.Bound, p.p. of → bind; → transition. bound-free transition   گذرش ِ بندیده-آزاد   gozareš-e bandidé-âzâdFr.: transition liée-libre   A transition in which a bound electron is liberated. → free-bound emission; → free-free emission.Bound, p.p. of → bind; → free. boundary   کران   karân (#)Fr.: limite, bord   1) General: Something that indicates a border or limit; the border or limit so indicated. 2) Thermodynamics: A conceptual closed surface useful in separating and distinguishing a system from its surroundings. 3) Math.: In topology, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. 4) Electronics: An area of meeting of P-type and N-type → semiconductor materials where the → donor and → acceptor concentrations are equal.From Fr., from O.Fr. bodne, from M.L. bodina, butina "boundary, boundary marker."Karân, karâné, kenâr from Mid.Pers. karânag, Av. karana- "boundary." boundary conditions   بوتارها‌ی ِ کران، ~ کرانی   butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâniFr.: conditions à la limite   1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation. In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation. 2) Physics: Conditions needed to determine the evolution of a system, given the physical laws.→ boundary; → condition. boundary effect   اسکر ِ کران   oskar-e karânFr.: effet de bords   An effect that forbids or invalidate locally the use of an idealized model of a system in which one or several of its dimensions are supposed to be infinite.→ boundary; → effect.