Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)
Fr.: condensation de Bose-Einstein
A → quantum phase transition during which the → bosons constituting a sufficiently cooled boson gas are all clustered in the → ground energy state. The phase transition results in a → Bose-Einstein condensate. This phenomenon occurs when the temperature becomes smaller than a critical value given by: Tc = (2πħ2 / km)(n / 2.612)2/3, where m is mass of each boson, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and n is the particle number density. When T ≤ Tc, the → de Broglie wavelength of bosons becomes comparable to the distance between bosons.
Fr.: distribution de Bose-Einstein
âmâr-e Bose-Einstein (#)
Fr.: statistique de Bose-Einstein
Same as → Bose-Einstein distribution.
Any of a class of particles (such as the → photon, → pion, or → alpha particle) that have zero or integral → spin and do not obey the → Pauli exclusion principle. The energy distribution of bosons is described by → Bose-Einstein statistics. See also: → gauge boson, → Higgs boson, → W boson, → Z boson, → intermediate boson.
Boson, in honor of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974).
From botanic, from Fr. botanique, M.L. botanicus, from Gk. botanikos "of herbs," from botane "herb, grass, pasture."
Botein (δ Ari)
Botein, from Ar. Al-Butain "the little belly."
Boteyn, from Ar. Al-Butain.
From O.Fr. bo(u)teille, from L.L. butticula diminutive of L. buttis "a cask."
Botri, loan from Fr. bouteille or E. bottle, as above.
tah (#), pâyin (#)
Fr.: bas, fond
M.E. botme; O.E. botm, bodan "ground, soil, lowest part" (cf. O.Fris. boden "soil," O.N. botn, O.H.G. bodam, Ger. Boden "ground, earth, soil"), akin to Pers. bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning;" Av. būna- "base, depth" (Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree;" Gk. pythmen "foundation;" L. fundus "bottom, piece of land, farm," O.Ir. bond "sole of the foot").
Tah "bottom; end"
(Mid.Pers. tah "bottom." The origin of this term is not clear.
It may be related to PIE *tenegos "water bottom;" cf.
Gk. tenagos "bottom, swamp," Latvian tigas, from *tingas, from
bottom-up structure formation
diseš-e sâxtâr az pâyin bé bâlâ
Fr.: formation des structures du bas vers le haut
1) bandidé; 2) karân
Fr.: lié; lien
Fr.: charge liée
Any electric charge which is bound to an atom or molecule, in contrast to free charge, such as metallic conduction electrons, which is not. Also known as → polarization charge.
Fr.: amas lié
A cluster of astronomical objects, such as stars or galaxies, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. → bound system.
Fr.: occurrence liée
Fr.: orbite liée
The orbit described by an object around a central gravitational force in a system whose total energy is negative. An elliptical orbit.
Fr.: système lié
A system composed of several material bodies the total energy of which (the sum of kinetic and potential energies) is negative, e.g. a → bound cluster.
Fr.: transition liée-liée
Fr.: transition liée-libre
Fr.: limite, bord
Something that indicates a border or limit; the border or limit so indicated.
From Fr., from O.Fr. bodne, from M.L. bodina, butina "boundary, boundary marker."
Karân, karâné, kenâr from Mid.Pers. karânag, Av. karana- "boundary."
butârhâ-ye karân, ~ karâni
Fr.: conditions à la limite
1) Math: Restriction on the limits of applicability of an equation.
In a differential equation, conditions that allow to fix the constant
of integration and reach a unique solution. The number of boundary conditions
necessary to determine a solution matches the order of the equation.
Fr.: effet de bords
An effect that forbids or invalidate locally the use of an idealized model of a system in which one or several of its dimensions are supposed to be infinite.