The act of dividing into branches. → branching ratio.
Fr.: rapport de branchement
A quantity used to describe a → radionuclide that has more than one → decay mode. For a particular decay mode, the ratio of the number of atoms decaying by that decay mode to the number decaying in total: BRi = ki/(k1 + k2 + ...) = ki/k, where k is → decay constant.
In theoretical physics, an entity which can have any number of allowed spatial dimensions. It is usually accompanied by a prefix, i.e. p-brane, indicating the number of dimensions. For example, a 0-brane is a zero-dimensional point-like particle, a 1-brane is a → string, a 2-brane is a "membrane," and so forth. Our Universe is a 3-brane.
Brane, short for membrane, from L. membrana "parchment," from membrum "limb, member of the body," → member.
Breyn, loanword from E., as above.
1) šekastan; boridan; gosastan; 2) šekast; boreš, boré; gosast
Fr.: 1) couper, rompre; 2) brisure, coupure
1) To separate into parts or fragments violently; to become broken.
From break, from M.E. breken, O.E. brecan, from P.Gmc. *brekan (cf. Du. breken, O.H.G. brehhan, Ger. brechen), from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (see also → fraction).
1) Šekastan, škan- "to break, split;"
Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand
"to break, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;"
PIE sken- "to cut off."
Fr.: luminosité de coupure
A characteristic luminosity around which the → luminosity function of a sample of galaxies changes to a steeper slope or exponentially declines.
Fr.: vitesse de rupture
The velocity of a → rotating star at which the → centrifugal force equals the → gravitational force. Also known as → critical velocity. The simplest expression of the break-up velocity for an OB star, ignoring the → Eddington luminosity, is given by the relation: v = (GM / R)1/2, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star respectively, and G the → gravitational constant. A more realistic expression takes into account not only the → radiation pressure, but also the non-uniformity of the brightness over the stellar surface, as indicated by → von Zeipel theorem. With these conditions, the break-up velocity has a more complicated formula, corresponding to the velocity reached when somewhere on the star the → total gravity becomes zero.
A rock composed of angular fragments (over two millimeter diameter) of older rocks melded together with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement.
From It. breccia "broken (rock)," from a Germanic source akin to O.H.G. brecha "a breaking," ultimately from PIE *bhreg- "to break," → fraction.
Bereš, loan from Fr.
To form as → breccia.
Characterized by, converted into, or resembling a breccia; especially of a rock structure marked by an accumulation of angular fragments, or of an ore texture showing mineral fragments without notable rounding.
Fr.: roche bréchifiée
A rock formed by the process of → brecciation.
The formation of → breccia.
Verbal noun of → brecciate.
A wind or current of air, especially a light or moderate one (2-14 m/sec).
From O.Sp. briza "cold northeast wind;" alternatively from East Frisian brisen "to blow fresh and strong."
Nasim "gentle breeze," from Ar.
Fr.: processus Breit-Wheeler
The production of an → electron-positron pair in the → collision of two → gamma ray → photons (γγ → e+e-). It is the → inverse process of → Dirac annihilation (e+e-→ γγ). The Breit-Wheeler process is the simplest way by which pure → light can be potentially transformed into → matter. However, as of 2014, this process has never been observed in practice because of the difficulty in preparing colliding → gamma ray beams.
Breit, G. & Wheeler, J. A. 1934, Collision of two light quanta. Phys. Rev. 46, 1087; → process.
Fr.: rayonnement de freinage, bremsstrahlung
Bremsstrahlung, from Ger. Bremse "brake" + Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray," from O.H.G. strala "arrow, stripe;" PIE *ster- "to spread."
zâviye-ye Brewster (#)
Fr.: angle de Brewster
Fr.: point de Brewster
A → neutral point located 15 to 20° directly below the Sun.
Fr.: loi de Brewster
The amount of the polarization of light reflected from a surface is a maximum when the reflected ray is at right angles to the refracted ray. See also → polarizing angle.
Named after Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), Scottish physicist; → law.
1) An apparent structure of → gas or
→ stars linking one → galaxy
to another, such as → Magellanic Bridge.
M.E. brigge, O.E. brycge, from P.Gmc. *brugjo (cf. Ger. Brücke), from PIE *bhru- "log, beam."
Pol, Mid.Pers. puhl,, Av. pərətav- "bridge, passage."
Giving out or reflecting much light, shining.
O.E. bryht, from beorht "bright, splendid," from P.Gmc. *berkhiaz, from PIE base *bhereg- "to gleam, white" (cf. Av. brāz- "to shine, gleam, flash, radiate," Skt. bhrajate "shines, glitters," Mod.Pers. balk, warq, barx, barq "flash, flame, light," barâz "beauty, grace, elegance," barâzidan "to render good, beautiful," Lith. breksta "to dawn," Welsh berth "bright, beautiful," L. flagrare "to blaze"). → electricity.
Deraxšân and rowšan both from M.P. rôc, O.Pers. raucah-, Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt roka- "brightness, light", cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear", L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna), PIE *leuk- "light, brightness". The Mod.Pers. words ruz "day," foruq "light", and afruxtan "to light, kindle" also belong to this family, as well as the E. light, Ger. Licht, and Fr. lumière.
Fr.: géante lumineuse
An → evolved star which is more → luminous than normal → giant stars (→ luminosity class III) and between ordinary giants and → supergiants (class I). It is denoted by the symbol II. Examples are → Canopus and → Adhara.