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bedrock sangbastar (#) Fr.: socle Solid → rock present beneath any → soil, → sediment, or other surface cover. In some locations it may be exposed at earth's surface. Bedrock, from bed (O.E. bed, from P.Gmc. *badjam "sleeping place dug in the ground;" PIE *bhedh- "to dig, pierce") + → rock. Sangbastar, from sang "stone, rock," → stone, + bastar "bed" (Mid.Pers. vistarak, cognate with Mod.Pers. gostar "a bed; spreading; scatterer," Av. star-, starəta- "spread," from star- "to spread," Skt. strnâti). |
beech râš (#) Fr.: hêtre Any tree of the genus Fagus, especially Fagus sylvatica of Europe, having smooth grayish bark. In Iran Fagus orientalis populates Caspian highland forests from Âstârâ to Gorgân. M.E. beche, from O.E. becew; cf. Dutch beuk, Ger. Buche, from PIE root *bhagos "beech tree;" also cf. Gk. phegos "oak," L. fagus "beech," Rus. buzina "elder." Râš, as named in Gilân, Râmsar, Šahsavâr, Kalârdašt. Its other names: (Mâzandarân) mers, (Ammaârlu, Manjil) râj, (Tevâleš, Mt. Dorfak) aluš, alâš, âlâš, (Nur) celer, celar (Iranica). |
Beehive Cluster xuše-ye kandu Fr.: amas de la ruche → Praesepe. |
behavior raftâr (#) Fr.: comportement Manner of behaving or acting. M.E. behavour, from behaven "to behave," altered by model havour, from O.Fr. avoir "to have." Raftâr "behavior, walking, going," from raft past tense stem of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack") + -âr prefix forming action noun. |
Bekenstein formula disul-e Bekenstein Fr.: formule de Bekenstein The mathematical expression giving the → entropy, S, of a → black hole as a function of the area of its → event horizon, A: S = (kc^{3}A)/(4Għ), where k is → Boltzmann's constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and G the → gravitational constant. It can also be expressed by S = (kA)/(4l_{P}^{2}), where l_{P} is the → Planck length. The existence of this entropy led to the prediction of the → Hawking radiation, because an entropy is associated with a temperature and a temperature to a → thermal radiation. The entropy of a black hole increases continuously because the fall of material into it increases its area. For Jacob D. Bekenstein (1947-), an Israeli theoretical physicist, who contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics; → formula. |
bel (B) bel (#) Fr.: bel A dimensionless unit to measure sound. One bel designates a ratio 10:1 between two quantities, P_{1} and P_{0}, which have the dimension of a power: n [B] = log (P_{1}/P_{0}), in Bel units, with → natural logarithm. If one sound is 2 bels louder than another, this means the louder sound is 100 times more intense than the fainter one. It is also common to use this definition for quantities that are proportional to a power, such as energy, work, intensity, or voltage. The bel was too large for everyday use, so the → decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 bel, is more commonly used. This unit was put forward by engineers of the Bell telephone network in 1923 and named in honor of the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), who also invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. |
Belinda (Uranus XIV) Belindâ Fr.: Belinda One of the small satellites of → Uranus discovered from the Voyager 2 photographs taken during its encounter with the planet in 1986. Named after the heroine in Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock. |
Bell's inequality nâhamugi-ye Bell Fr.: inégalité de Bell Any of a large number of inequality relations developed to study the → hidden variable hypothesis suggested in the → EPR paradox. Using Bell's inequalities, the → Aspect experiment showed that no local hidden variable theory can make predictions in agreement with those of quantum mechanics. If, in a measurement, the inequality is violated, the measurement is in agreement with the predictions of the quantum theory. If the equality is satisfied, it suggests that a classical, causal, and local model is adequate to explain the outcome of the measurements. See also → quantum entanglement. John Stewart Bell (1928-1990); → inequality. |
Bellatrix (γ Orionis) Bellatriks, Merzam Fr.: Bellatrix A bright, blue → giant star ( → spectral type B2 III), one of the main stars of the constellation → Orion. With a visual magnitude of 1.64, it is about 1000 times more luminous than the Sun, and lies at a distance of 243 → light-years. From L. bellatrix "a female warrior," fem. of bellator, from bellum "war." Merzam, Ar. name of the star; its other name is Nâjed. |
belong pargetidan, parget dâštan Fr.: appartenir 1) (with preposition to) To be the property of. M.E. belongen, from be- intensive prefix, + longen "to go," from O.E. langian "pertain to, to go along with;" akin to Du. belangen, Ger. belangen; of unknown origin. Pargetidan, literally "to surround, to relate with" (on the model of L. pertinere "pertain," Skt. parigraha- "surrounding; relation to"), from parget "to hold, seize, take around," from par- "around," → peri-, + get "to take, sieze," as in Tâleši gate "to take," Târi gata, Sorxeyi, Lâsgardi, Semnâni, Šâhmerzâdi -git- "take, seize," variants of gereftan "take, hold," → concept. |
belongs to mipargetad, parget dârad Fr.: appartient If x is an → element of a → set S, then x belongs to S and this is written x ∈ S. Third person present verb of → belong. |
belt kamarband (#) Fr.: ceinture A strip of leather or cloth worn around the waist. Something that resembles this type of band, e.g. → Gould's Belt, → Belt of Venus. O.E. belt, from P.Gmc. *baltjaz, from L. balteus "girdle;" → Orion. Kamarband "belt," from kamar "waist" (Mid.Pers. kamar "waist; belt, girdle," Av. kamarâ- "belt") + band "a band, tie, belt." |
Belt of Orion kamarband-e Šekârgar, ~ Oryon Fr.: Baudrier d'Orion → Orion's Belt. |
Belt of Venus kamarband-e Nâhid Fr.: Ceinture de Vénus A pink to brownish border above the horizon separating the Earth's dark shadow on the sky from the sky above it. The Belt of Venus appears during a cloudless twilight just before sunrise or after sunset. It is due to scattered red sunlight in the atmosphere. Also called anti-twilight arc. |
BepiColombo BepiColombo Fr.: BepiColombo A → European Space Agency (ESA) mission aimed at studying the composition, geophysics, atmosphere, magnetosphere, and history of → Mercury, the least explored planet in the inner → Solar System. It will be launched in 2018. Among several investigations, BepiColombo will make a complete map of Mercury at different wavelengths. It will chart the planet's mineralogy and elemental composition, determine whether the interior of the planet is molten or not, and investigate the extent and origin of Mercury's magnetic field. BepiColombo is a joint mission between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), executed under ESA leadership. Named after Giuseppe (Bepi) Colombo (1920-1984), a scientist who studied Mercury's orbital motion in detail as well as orbits and interplanetary travel in general. |
Berenice's Hair Gisu Fr.: Chevelure de Bérénice |
Bernoulli equation hamugeš-e Bernoulli Fr.: équation de Bernoulli The equation expressing → Bernoulli's theorem: P + (1/2)ρV^{2} + ρgz = constant, where P is the fluid → pressure, V is → velocity, ρ is → density, g is the acceleration due to → gravity, and z is the vertical reference → level. The theree terms are called → static pressure, → dynamic pressure, and → hydrostatic pressure, respectively. The Bernoulli equation states that the total pressure along a → streamline is → constant. → Bernoulli's theorem; → equation. |
Bernoulli's theorem farbin-e Bernoulli Fr.: théorème de Bernoulli A statement of the → conservation of energy in the → steady flow of an → incompressible, → inviscid fluid. Accordingly, the quantity (P/ρ) + gz + (V^{2}/2) is → constant along any → streamline, where P is the fluid → pressure, V is the fluid → velocity, ρ is the mass → density of the fluid, g is the acceleration due to → gravity, and z is the vertical → height. This equation affirms that if the internal velocity of the flow goes up, the internal pressure must drop. Therefore, the flow becomes more constricted if the velocity field within it increases. Same as the → Bernoulli equation. After Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), the Swiss physicist and mathematician who put forward the theorem in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738; → theorem. |
beryllium beriliom (#) Fr.: béryllium A grey, very hard metallic chemical element; symbol Be. → Atomic number 4; → atomic weight 9.01218; → melting point about 1,278°C; → boiling point 2,970°C (estimated); → specific gravity 1.85 at 20°C; → valence +2. Beryllium occurs as beryl, from which it is obtained by electrolysis. Used for light alloys which are corrosion resistant. Beryllium was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829) in 1798. First isolated by Friedrich Wöhler (1800-1882) in 1828. From L. beryll(us), from beryl, a mineral, beryllium aluminum silicate, Be_{3}Al_{2}Si_{6}O_{18}, M.E. beril, from O.Fr., from L. berillus, from Gk. beryllos, + → -ium. |
Bessel Besel Fr.: Bessel From Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846), German astronomer and mathematicians, who made fundamental contributions to positional and spherical astronomy. |
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