An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 487
  ۱) ورک؛ ۲) پیش-تنش؛ ۳) ورک دادن   
1) varak; 2) pištaneš; 3) varak dâdan

Fr.: 1, 2) biais; 3) biaiser   

1) General: Leaning of the mind toward or away from something; especially: a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment.
Statistics: A → systematic error introduced by selecting items from a wrong population, favoring some of the elements of a population, or poorly phrasing questions.
2) Electronics: A → voltage applied to a device to establish a reference level for operation. Same as initial voltage, initial tension (Ger. die Vorspannung). In a → CCD detector, electronic → offset which prevents negative signal.
3a) General: To give a settled and often prejudiced outlook to.
3b) Electronics: To apply a small voltage to a device to control its operation. See also: → bias error, → bias frame, → bias offset, → bias voltage, → biased, → biased estimate, → biased galaxy formation, → biased sample, → biased statistics, → debias, → kinematic bias, → Lutz-Kelker bias, → Malmquist bias, → observational bias, → sampling bias, → unbiased, → unbiased estimator.

From M.Fr. biais "slant," perhaps ultimately from Gk. epikarsios "slanting, oblique," from epi- "upon" + karsios "oblique."

Varak, from var "side, direction" + -ak suffix denoting relation, affinity, similarity (as in dastak, poštak, pašmak, xarak, nâxonak, mušak, eynak). Note also var in yekvar "slanting, inclined".
Pištaneš, only in the electronic sense, from piš, → pre- + taneš, → tension.
Varak dâdan, from varak + dâdan "to give," → datum.

bias error
  ایرنگ ِ ورک، خطای ~   
irang-e varak, xatâ-ye ~

Fr.: erreur de biais   

A measurement error that remains constant in magnitude for all observations; for example an incorrectly set zero adjustment.

bias; → error.

bias frame
  نورداد برای ِ ورک   
nurdâd barây-e varak

Fr.: pose pour biais   

CCD frame with exposure time set to zero and giving the bias level.

bias; → frame.

Nurdâd, → exposure; varakbias

bias offset
  اپنه ِ ورک   
apneh-e varak

Fr.: biais   

In → CCD detectors, same as → bias and → offset.

bias; → offset.

bias voltage
  ولتاژ ِ ورک   
voltâž-e varak

Fr.: voltage de biais   

A voltage applied or developed between two electrodes as a bias.

bias; → voltage.


Fr.: biaisé   

Marked by or exhibiting bias; characterized by settled and often prejudiced outlook.

Biased, from → bias + adj. suffix -ed.

Varakdâr, from varak, → bias + -dâr "possessing, having," from dâštan "to possess, to have."

biased estimate
  بر‌آورد ِ ورکدار   
barâvard-e varakdâr

Fr.: estimation biasiée   

Of a population parameter, if the mean or expectation of the statistics is not equal to the parameter.

biased; → estimate.

barâvard, → estimate; varakdârbiased.

biased galaxy formation
  دیسش ِ ورکدار ِ کهکشانها   
diseš-e varakdâr-e kahkašânhâ

Fr.: formation biaisée de galaxies   

The theory that bright galaxies form preferentially from anomalously overdense perturbations in the → early Universe.

biased; → galaxy; → formation.

biased sample
  نمونان ِ ورکدار   
nemunân-e varakdâr

Fr.: échantillon biaisé   

A sample that is not a true representative of a → statistical population to which generalizations are to be made. A sample which is not → randomly constituted.

biased; → sample.

biased statistics
  آمار ِ ورکدار   
âmâr-e varakdâr

Fr.: statistique biasée   

A statistics based on a → biased sample.

biased; → statistics.

biaxial crystal
  بلور ِ دو‌آسه   
bolur-e doâsé

Fr.: cristal biaxe   

A birefrigent crystal, such as mica, that is characterized by having two optical axes along which light is propagated with equal velocities.

Biaxial, from → bi- "two" + axial, from → axe; → crystal.


Fr.: BICEP2   

A → microwave → polarimeter designed specifically to target the → B-mode signature of → inflation in the → cosmic microwave background polarization. BICEP2 observed from the South Pole for three seasons from 2010 to 2012. This 26 cm aperture → telescope comprised an all-cold refracting optical system equipped with a → bolometer array of 512 → detectors (256 pixels) operating at 150 GHz.

BICEP2, the upgraded version of the first BICEP, short for Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization.

biconcave lens
  عدسی ِ دوکاو   
adasi-ye dokâv

Fr.: lentille biconcave   

Describing a lens with two concave faces.

Biconcave, from → bi- + → concave; → lens.

Adasi, → lens; dokâv "biconcave," from do-, → bi- + kâv, → concave.

biconvex lens
  عدسی ِ دوکوژ   
adasi-ye dokuž

Fr.: lentille biconvexe   

A spherical lens with two convex faces. The radii of curvature for the two surfaces may or may not be the same.

Biconvex, from → bi- + → convex; → lens.

Adasi, → lens; dokuž "biconvex" from do-, → bi- + kuž, → convex.

Biela's comet
  دنباله‌دار ِ بیلا   
donbâledâr-e Biyelâ

Fr.: comète de Biela   

A comet having a short period of 6.62 years discovered by Biela. It broke up on its 1846 return and subsequently gave rise to a spectacular meteor shower.

In honor of Wilhelm von Biela (1782-1856), Austrian military officer and amateur astronomer, who re-discovered the comet Biela in 1826, although it had been seen first in 1772. → comet.


Fr.: Bielides   

A → meteor shower, originating from → Biela's comet, whose → radiant lies in the constellation → Andromeda; also called → Andromidids.

Bielids, From Biel(a) + → -ids suffix denoting "descendant of, belonging to the family of."

  ۱) دوگلیدن؛ ۲) دوگل   
1) dogalidan; 2) dogal

Fr.: 1) bifurquer; 2) à deux branches   

1) To divide into two branches.
2) Divided into two branches.

M.L. bifurcatus, from L. → bi- "two," + furca "pitchfork; fork used in cooking," of uncertain origin.

Dogalidan, from Gilaki dogal "fork, two-branched," cf. Tabari dekal, dokkal, doqâla, from do, → two, + gal, kal "branch, part," cf. Kurd. (Kurmanji) kar "part, piece," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife," (+ *niš-) nišgarda "cobbler's knife;" Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut," (+ *fra-) fragard "chapter, section;" Av. karət- "to cut;" Proto-Iranian *kart- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut;" + -idan infinitive suffix. See also → shear.


Fr.: bifurcation   

1) A branching or division into two parts; a splitting apart.
2) A sudden qualitative change in the behavior of a → dynamical system. The equation describing the evolution of the system finds several solutions for certain values of a parameter. Systems undergoing a bifurcation do not necessarily return to their original state, even if the parameter returns to its nominal value. See also → chaos.

Verbal noun of → bifurcate.

bifurcation point
  نقطه‌ی ِ دوگلش   
noqte-ye dogaleš

Fr.: point de bifurcation   

The point or moment in the evolution of a → dynamical system that occurs if a parameter passes through a critical point. At this point the system branches into any number of qualitatively new types of behavior.

bifurcation; → point.

bifurcation theory
  نگره‌ی ِ دوگلش   
negare-ye dogaleš

Fr.: théorie de bifurcation   

1) A theory which studies how, in certain nonlinear systems, there may be paths and shifts in behavior dependent on small changes in circumstances or the current position of the system.
2) Math.: The study of the behavior of a solution of a nonlinear problem in the neighborhood of a known solution, particularly as a parameter varies.

bifurcation; → theory.

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