An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1307
Seres (#)

Fr.: Cérès   

Once qualified as the largest known → asteroid, Ceres is now classified as a → dwarf planet (2006 IAU General Assembly). It is approximately 950 km across, and resides with tens of thousands of asteroids in the main → asteroid belt; it is the largest body of the belt. Its mass is 9.4 × 1020 kg, its → rotation period 9.074 hours, its → orbital period 4.60 years, and its → semi-major axis 2.767 AU. NASA's → Dawn spacecraft, which was placed in orbit around Ceres in 2015, has mapped its surface in great detail. Dawn discovered very bright spots, which reflect far more light than their much darker surroundings. The most prominent of these spots lie inside the crater → Occator and suggest that Ceres may be a much more active world than most of its asteroid neighbours (Molaro et al., 2015, arXiv:1602.03467).

Ceres in Roman mythology was the goddess of growing plants and of motherly love. She was equivalent to Demeter in Gk. mythology.


Fr.: Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN)   

European Organization for Nuclear Research, founded in 1954, and located on the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. CERN is one of the world's largest centres for scientific research. At CERN, the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments are used to study the basic constituents of matter, i.e. the → elementary particles. The instruments used at CERN are particle → accelerators and → detectors. Currently it has 20 Member States.

CERN, acronym of the organization's original name Centre Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)
  نپاهشگاه ِ اندر-آمریکایی ِ کوه ِ تولولو   
Nepâhešgâh-e andar-Âmrikâyi-ye Kuh-e Tololo

Fr.: Observatoire inter-américain du Cerro Tololo   

A complex of astronomical telescopes and instruments located approximately 80 km to the East of La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 2,200 m. CTIO headquarters are located in La Serena, Chile, about 480 km north of Santiago. The principal telescopes on site are the 4-m Victor M. Blanco Telescope and the 4.1-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. One of the two 8-m telescopes comprising the Gemini Observatory is co-located with CTIO on the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) property in Chile, together with more than 10 other telescopes and astronomical projects.

Cerro "mountain" in Spanish; Tololo a proper name; → inter-; American, from America, → North America Nebula; → Observatory.

tâštig (#)

Fr.: certain   

Determined, fixed; established beyond doubt or question; indisputable. → determinism.

From O.Fr. certain, from V.L. *certanus, from L. certus "sure, fixed," originally a variant p.p. of cernere "to distinguish, decide."

Tâštig, from Mid.Pers. tâštig "certain," tâšitan "to cut, cleave, create," Mod.Pers. tarâšidan, Gilaki tâštan "to shave, scrape, cut," Av. taš- "to cut, fashion, shape, form," taša- "ax, hatchet," tašan- "creator, maker," cf. Skt. taks- "to cut, chop, form by cutting, make, create," taksan "carpenter," Gk. tekhne "art, skill, craft, method," L. textere "to weave;" PIE base *tek- "to shape, make."

tâštigi (#)

Fr.: certitude   

The fact, quality, or state of being certain, especially on the basis of evidence. Something that is certain. → uncertainty; → uncertainty principle.

Noun from → certain.

seziom (#)

Fr.: césium   

A soft ductile chemical element of the → alkali metal group; symbol Cs. It is found in several → silicate minerals, including pollucite. The metal oxidizes in air and reacts violently with water. → Atomic number 55; → atomic weight 132.9054; → melting point 28.4°C; → boiling point 669.3°C; → specific gravity 1.873 at 20°C; and → valence +1. Cesium has several radioactive isotopes, among which 134Cs with a half-life of 2.07 years and 137Cs with a half-life of 30.3 years. Cesium was discovered spectroscopically in 1860 by W. Bunsen and G. Kirchhoff in mineral water from Durkheim.

From L. caesius "bluish gray," which was the color of the cesium line in the spectroscope, + → -ium.

cesium clock
  ساعت ِ سزیوم   
sâ'at-e seziom

Fr.: horloge à cesium   

atomic fountain clock.

cesium; → clock.


Fr.: Baleine   

The Whale, or Sea Monster. A large, rather inconspicuous → constellation in the equatorial region of the sky at R.A. 1h 30m, Dec. -10°. Its brightest star (Diphda) is a 2nd magnitude and contains → Mira Ceti, the first-known variable star, and the → Seyfert galaxy M77. Abbreviation: Cet; genitive form: Ceti.

Named after the sea monster in Gk. mythology sent by Poseidon to punish the Queen → Cassiopeia for bragging that she or her daughter → Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereides. But → Perseus rescued Andromeda.

Ketus, from Gk., Arabicized form Qeytas (قیطس).

CGS system
  راژمان ِ CGS   
râžmân-e CGS

Fr.: système CGS   

The system of → CGS units.

CGS unit; → system.

CGS units
  یکاهای ِ س.گ.ث   
yekâhâ-ye CGS (#)

Fr.: unités CGS   

A → metric system of physical units based on → centimeter (length), → gram (mass), and → second (time).

CGS, the initials of → centimeter, → gram, and → second; meter, kilogram, and second; → unit.

CH (methylidine)
   CH (متیلیدین)   
CH (methylidine)

Fr.: CH (méthylidine)   

The first molecule detected in the interstellar medium. Methylidine radical (CH) was discovered by Walter S. Adams in 1937 using coudé spectroscopy in the direction of the bright star ζ Ophiuchi at the Mount Wilson Observatory (main CH line at 4300 Å).

Chemical term based on Gk. methy "wine," cognate with Pers. mey "wine," from Mid.Pers. mad, may "wine;" Av. maδu- "wine, mead;" cf. Skt. mádhu- "honey, wine, sweet drink," O.E. medu, E. mead, M.Du. mede, Ger. Met "mead;" O.C.S. medu, Lith. medus "honey;" Rus. m'od "honey," m'édved' "bear" (literally "honey-knower"); PIE base *médhu- "honey, sweet drink."

CH molecule
  مولکول ِ متیلیدین   
molekul-e methylidine

Fr.: molécule de méthylidine   

CH (methylidine).

CH (methylidine); → molecule.

  زنجیر، زنجیره   
zanjir (#), zanjiré (#)

Fr.: chaîne   

1) A series of usually metal links passing through one another, used for various purposes.
2) A series of things connected or following in succession. → chain reaction; → proton-proton chain.

Chain, from O.Fr. chaeine, from L. catena "fetter."

Zanjir from Mid.Pers. zanjir "chain;" zanjiré, from zanjir + nuance suffix .

chain reaction
  واژیرش ِ زنجیری، واکنش ِ ~   
vâžireš-e zanjiri, vâkoneš-e ~

Fr.: réaction en chaîne   

A succession of → nuclear fissions when the neutrons released by previous fissions produce other nuclear fissions which themselves cause other reactions and the reactions goes on increasing exponentially.

chain; → reaction.

Chajnantor observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ چاخنانتور   
nepâhešgâh-e Chajnantor

Fr.: observatoire de Chajnantor   

A high plateau site located at an altitude of 5,104 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, about 50 kilometers to the east of San Pedro de Atacama (longitude 67° 46' W, latitude 23° 02' S). It is the site of the → Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

In Kunza, the ancestral language of the people living in the region, Chajnantor or Tchacknatur means "lift-off place." It is the place of platforms for worshipping the Sun, where since immemorial time prayers and wishes lifted off (ESO book Cerca del Cielo).

Âftâbparast (#)

Fr.: Caméléon   

The Chameleon. A small inconspicuous → constellation in the southern hemisphere near → Crux, lying at approximate position: R.A. 11 h, Dec. -80°. Abbreviation: Cha; genitive form: Chamaeleonis;

From O.Fr. chaméléon, from L. chamaeleon, from Gk. khamaileon, from khamai "on the ground" (akin to chthon "earth;" cf. Av. zam- "the earth," Mid.Pers. zamig, Mod.Pers. zami, zamin "the earth," Skt. ksam, L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth," PIE *dh(e)ghom "earth") + leon "lion."

Âftâbparast "chameleon," literally "sun adorer," from âftâb "Sun, sunlight" + parast "worshipper,"

otâqak (#)

Fr.: chambre   

An enclosed space making part of a laboratory apparatus, such as → bubble chamber, → cloud chamber, → multiwire proportional chamber.

M.E., from O.Fr. chambre, from L.L. camera "a chamber, room."

Otâqak "small room, small chamber," cf. Sogdian ôtâk "place, region," ôtâkcik "local, regional, native" + -ak diminutive suffix.

champagne effect
  اسکر ِ شامپانی   
oskar-e šâmpâyn

Fr.: effet champagne   

Blowing out of → ionized gas from a → molecular cloud when the → ionization front of an → H II region created by an → embedded  → massive star arrives at the molecular cloud edge. The large → pressure gradient set up between the H II region and the → interstellar medium ejects the ionized material with velocities larger than 30 km/s, in a way comparable to champagne flowing out of a bottle.

From a hydrodynamical model first proposed by Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle (1979). Champagne, Fr., short for vin de Champagne "wine from Champagne," a historical region at northeast France, from L.L. campania "flat open country," from L. campus "field;" → effect.

champagne flow
  تچان ِ شامپانی   
tacân-e šâmpâyn

Fr.: flot champagne   

The flow of → ionized gas escaping from a → molecular cloud due to the → champagne effect.


Chandler wobble
  پلاپل ِ چاندلر   
palâpel-e Candler

Fr.: mouvement de Chandler   

Small-scale variations in the position of the Earth's geographical poles within an irregular circle of 3 to 15 metres in diameter. It seems to result from two nearly circular components, a seasonal variation in the mass distribution on the Earth (ice, snow, atmosphere) and movements of matter within the Earth.

Named after Seth Carlo Chandler (1846-1913), the American astronomer who discovered the phenomenon; → wobble.

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