An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1259
Calypso (Saturn XIV)
Kalupso (#)

Fr.: Calypso   

A satellite of Saturn discovered in 1980 on the images taken by Voyager 1. It shares the same orbit as Telesto and Tethys at a distance of 294,660 km and turns around the planet with a period of 1.888 days. It is 34 x 22 x 22 km in size.

In Greek mythology, Calypso was a sea nymph and the daughter of the Titan Atlas.

Zarrâfé (#)

Fr.: Girafe   

The Giraffe. An extended but inconspicuous → constellation near the north celestial pole. Approximate position: R.A. 5 h, Dec. 70°; abbreviation Cam, genitive form Camelopardalis.

M.E., from Medieval L. camlopardus, from L. camelopardalis, from Gk. kamelopardalis, from kamelos "camel" + pardalis, pard "leopard" (because the giraffe has a head like a camel's and the spots of a leopard), from L. pardus, from Gk. pardos "male panther," from the same source (probably Iranian) as Skt. prdaku- "leopard, tiger, snake," and Pers. palang "panther."

Zarrâfé "giraffe," from Ar. zarafa, probably from an African language. This term is at the origin of this animal's name in European languages, via It. giraffa. The Pers. name of the animal is: šotor-gâv-palang, from Mid.Pers., composed of šotor "camel" + gâv "ox, bull, cow," → Taurus, + palang "panther."


Fr.: appareil photo, caméra   

1) An apparatus for recording the light from an object onto a sensitive material, such as film or CCD detector.
2) A device that converts optical images into electrical impulses.

Mod.L. camera obscura "dark chamber" from L. camera "vaulted room," from Gk. kamara "vault," cf. Av. kamarâ- "waist; vault" Mod.Pers. kamar "waist," Skt. kamarati "is vaulted;" PIE base *kam- "to arch."

Kadak "small room," from kad, kadé "room, chamber, habitation, vault, cell, cavern," Mid.Pers. katak, Av. kata- "(small) room, closet, (small) house," cf. Goth. hethjo "small room" O.S. kotici "cavern, nest," PIE *kot(os).


Fr.: barrer, rayer   

To make void; revoke; annul.

M.E. cancellen, from M.L. cancellare "to cross out," from L. cancellare "to make like a lattice," from cancelli "lattice, grating."

Fâtaridan, from Sogd. fâtar "to remove, to set aside," from *fra-taraya-, from *tar- "to cross" (Cheung 2007), → trans-.

Xarcang (#)

Fr.: Cancer   

The Crab. The dimmest → constellation of the → Zodiac, located in the northern hemisphere at approximately R.A. 8 h and Dec. +20°. The main feature of the constellation is the open cluster → Praesepe (M 44). Abbreviation: Cnc; genitive form: Cancri.

Cancer,from L., from Gk. karkinos; PIE base *qarq- "to be hard" (like the shell of a crab); cf. Skt. karkatah "crab," karkarah "hard."
In Gk. mythology the Crab was sent by the goddess Hera to bite Hercules in the midst of the struggle with → Hydra, but Hercules crushed the crustacean with his heel. Hera rewarded the Crab by placing it in the → Zodiac.

Xarcang "crab," from Mid.Pers. karcang, cf. Lori qerženg from kar-, qer- + cang, ženg "claw." The component xar/qer may be related to Av. xruta-, xraoždva- "hard," as in xruždisma- "hard ground" (from xruždi- + zam-), and to the PIE *qarq- "to be hard." In that case, the Pers. term for crab would literally mean "hard claw."

Cancer, Tropic of
  هورگردِ خرچنگ   
Hurgard-e Xarcang

Fr.: Tropique du Cancer   

Tropic of Cancer.


Fr.: candela   

The basic → unit of → luminosity  → intensity in the → SI system of units. The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits → monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 hertz and that has a → radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 → watt per → steradian. The frequency chosen is that to which the eye is most sensitive (555 → nanometer). The factor 683 is to make the value identical to that obtained with the previous version of the unit: the emission from 1 square centimeter of glowing, solidifying platinum.

From L. candela, → candle.

nâmzad (#)

Fr.: candidat   

1) An applicant or suitable person for a position.
2) An astronomical entity which is being considered for belonging to a special class of entities; e.g. → black hole candidate, → dark matter candidate, → supernova candidate.

From L. candidatus "clothed in white" (reference to the white togas worn by those seeking office), from candidus "shining white," from candere "to shine," cf. Skt. cand- "to shine," candra "bright; the Moon;" PIE base *kand- "to glow, to shine."

Nâmzad, literally "nominated," from nâm, → name, + zad, p.p. of zadan "to strike" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan, O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill," Skt. han- "to strike, beat," Gk. theinein "to strike," L. fendere "to strike, push," Gmc *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

šam' (#)

Fr.: bougie, chandelle   

1) A cylinder or block of wax, tallow, or other fatty substance with a central wick, which is burned to produce light.
2) A unit of luminous intensity, superseded by the → candela.

M.E., O.E. candel, from L. candela "a light, torch," from candere "to shine," candidus "shining white" (E. candidate); cf. Skt. cand- "to shine, to glow," candati "shines," candra- "shining, glowing, the Moon;" Gk. kandaros "coal;" PIE base *kand- "to glow, to shine."

Šam', loan from Ar.

Canes Venatici
  تازی، سگانِ تازی   
Tâzi (#), Sagân-e Tâzi (#)

Fr.: Chiens de chasse   

The Hunting Dogs. A small → constellation in the northern hemisphere at approximate position: R.A. 7h, Dec. +40°. Abbreviation: CVn, genitive form: Canum Venaticorum.

L. Canes Venatic from canes, pl. of canis "dog" + venatici, pl. of venaticus "hunting." The constellation was created by the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius in his sky chart of 1687.

Tâzi "greyhound, hunting dog," originally "swift, fast," from tâzidan, tâxtan "to run, to assault, to chase," Av. tak- "to run," Skt. talki "he rushes at," O.S. techim "to run away," Lith. teku "to run, flow." Sagân-e Tâzi, from sagân pl. of sag "dog" → Canis Major + tâzi.

Canis Major
  سگِ بزرگ   
Sag-e Bozorg (#)

Fr.: Grand Chien   

The Greater Dog. A → constellation in the southern hemisphere which contains → Sirius, the brightest star of the whole sky. Approximate position: R.A. 7 h, Dec. -20°; abbreviation CMa; genitive form Canis Majoris.

L. Canis Major, from canis "dog" (cf. Gk. kuon, Skt. svâ-, Av. spâ-, Pers. sag; PIE *kwon-) + Maior "larger," from L. major, irregular comp. of magnus "large, great" (cf. Gk. megas, Av. maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," Skt. mah-, mahant-, Mod.Pers. meh; PIE *meg- "great").
Canis Major is usually seen as one of the two hunting dogs of the hunter Orion. The other dog is Canis Minor, the Little Dog.

Sag-e Bozorg, from sag, see the above paragraph, + bozorg "large, great," Mid.Pers. vuzurg, O.Pers. vazarka- "great," Av. vazra- "club," Skt. vajati, vaja- "strength," vajra- "Indira's thunderbolt," L. vegere "to be lively," PIE *weg- "to be strong, be lively."

Canis Minor
  سگِ کوچک   
Sag-e Kucak (#)

Fr.: Petit Chien   

The Lesser Dog. A small → constellation in the equatorial region of the northern sky at approximately R.A. 7h 30m, Dec. +5°. It hosts the bright star → Procyon. Abbreviation CMi, genitive form Canis Minoris.

Canis Minor, from canis "dog" → Canis Major; L. minor "lesser, smaller," from PIE base *min- "small" (cf. Gk. meion "less, lesser," Skt. mi-, minati "to diminish."

Sag "dog," → Canis Major; kucak "small," from Mid.Pers. kok, kotak, kotah "small, short; child."

Canon der Finsternisse
  فهرست ِ گرفت‌ها   
fehrest-e gerefthâ (#)

Fr.: Canon des éclipses   

Canon of Eclipses. The most famous catalogue of solar and lunar eclipses. Published in 1887 by Theodor von Oppolzer, the catalogue contains the elements of all solar and lunar eclipses between 1208 BC and 2161 AD. It has been superseded by the calculations of F. Espenak and J. Meeus, Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (NASA/TP-2006-214141) and Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (NASA/TP-2009-214172).

Canon, from L. canon, from Gk. kanon "a straight rod, a measuring rod, rule;" Ger. Finsternisse, plural from finsternis "eclipse; darkness," from finster "dark," M.H.G. vinster, O.H.G. finstar "dark" + -nis suffix forming abstract nouns, → -ness.

Fehrest "index, catalogue, canon," → index; gerefthâ plural of gereft, → eclipse.


Fr.: canonique   

1) General: Pertaining to, established by, or conforming to a canon, i.e. a law or a general rule (especially in ecclesiastical matters).
2) Math.: Relating to the simplest or standard form of a general function, equation, rule, etc.

M.M. canonicalis, from canonic(us), from L. canon, from Gk. kanon "a straight rod, a measuring rod, rule " + alis, → -al.

Hanjârvâr, from hanjâr "a mason's rule, any string or instrument used by builders in laying stones straight; rule, law, way, custom; a norm" + -vâr suffix meaning "having, endowed with; like, in the manner of."

canonical change
  دگرشد ِ هنجاروار، دگرش ِ ~   
degaršod-e hanjârvâr, degareš-e ~

Fr.: changement canonique   

A periodic change in one of the components of the orbit of a celestial object.

canonical; → change.

canonical coordinates
  هماراها‌یِ هنجاروار   
hamârâhâ-ye hanjârvâr,

Fr.: coordonnées canoniques   

Any set of generalized coordinates of a system together with their → conjugate momenta.

canonical; → coordinates.

canonical correlation
  هم‌باز‌آنشِ هنجاروار   
hambâzânš-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: correlation canonique   

The highest correlation between linear functions of two data sets when specific restrictions are imposed upon them.

canonical; → correlation.

canonical equation
  هموگشِ هنجاروار   
hamugeš-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: équation canonique   

The most general form of an equation.

canonical; → equation.

canonical form
  دیسه‌یِ هنجاروار   
dise-ye hanjârvâr

Fr.: forme canonique   

The simplest expression of an equation, statement, or rule.

canonical; → form.

canonical IMF
   IMF ِ هنجاروار   
IMF-e hanjârvâr

Fr.: IMF canonique   

A two-component stellar → initial mass function with → slopes of 1.3 and 2.3 for massive and low mass stars, respectively. Also called universal IMF.

canonical; → IMF.

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