An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1290
corpuscular theory of light
  نگره‌ی ِ کرپولی ِ نور   
negare-ye karpuli-ye nur

Fr.: théorie corpusculaire de la lumière   

Newton's theory according to which light is made up of point-like particles without any mass. It failed to explains several phenomena: simultaneous reflection and refraction at a semi-transparent boundary, interference, diffraction and polarization. Moreover, it requested that the speed of light be greater in a denser medium than in a rarer medium; this prediction is contrary to experimental results. In 1924 Louis de Broglie postulated that matter has not only a corpuscular nature but also a wave nature, and subsequent experiments confirmed de Broglie's model.

Corpuscular, adj. from → corpuscle; → theory, → light.

  ۱) ارشا؛ ۲) ارشاییدن   
1) aršâ; 2) aršâyidan

Fr.: 1) correct; 2) corriger   

1) Free from error; conforming to an acknowledged or accepted standard or fact; true or accurate.
2) To remove the errors or mistakes from. → bolometric correction, → correcting plate, → correction, → corrector, → ionization correction factor, → K correction, → Malmquist correction, → Rydberg correction, → wavefront correction.

From L. correctus, p.p. of corrigere "make straight, put right," from → com- intens. prefix + regere "to guide, direct, rule," cf. Av. raz- "to direct, lead," razišta- "straightest, most correct," erezu- "correct, straight," râzayeiti "directs," O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "staright, true," Mod.Pers. râst "right, straight, true," Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight," Gk. orektos "stretched out," Ger. recht, E. right; PIE base *reg- "right, just; to move in a straight line."

1) Aršâ, from Av. arš, ereš, erež "rightly, truly," as in arš.dâta- "rightly made," arš.manah- "whose thinking is right," arš.vacah- "whose speaking is right," erešya- "righteous, just," cf. O.Pers. arta- "law, justice," Skt. rta- "cosmic order," Gk. arti "just," artios "complete;" PIE base ar- "to fit together, join."

Note: For the sake of clarity, we avoid the Persian term dorost because its dominant meaning is "entire, complete, whole, safe, sound," although it means also "accurate, correct." Etymology: Mid.Pers. drust "straight, right, healthy," drôd "health, thriving," Parthian rwd "health, thriving," O.Pers. duruva- "firm, certain, immune," Av. drava- "healthy," Skt. dhruva- "fixed, firm, lasting," druh- "to be firm," Proto-Iranian *druua-.
2) Aršâyidan, verb from aršâ "correct."

correcting plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ ارشاینده، ~ ارشاگر   
tiqe-ye aršâyandé, ~ aršâgar

Fr.: lame correctrice   

A large glass plate placed at the entrance of a Schmidt telescope to correct for spherical aberration over the large field of view.

correct; → plate.


Fr.: correction   

1) The act or process of correcting.
2) A quantity added to a calculated or observed value to obtain the true value.
3) Something that is substituted or proposed for what is wrong or inaccurate.

Noun form of → correct.

  ارشاینده، ~ ارشاگر   
aršâyandé, ~ aršâgar

Fr.: correcteur   

A thin lens-like optical piece which removes certain optical aberrations.

correct + → -or.


Fr.: corréler   

1) To place in or bring into causal or mutual relation.
2) To have a mutual or reciprocal relation.

From co-, → com-, + relate, → relation

Hambâzânidan , from ham-com- + bâzânidanrelate.


Fr.: corrélation   

General: The degree to which two or more attributes or measurements on the same group of elements show a tendency to vary together; the state or relation of being correlated.
Statistics: The strength of the linear dependence between two random variables.

From M.Fr. corrélation, from cor- "together," → com- + → relation.

Hambâzâneš , from ham-com- + bâzânešrelation.

correlation coefficient
  همگر ِ هم‌باز‌آنش   
hamgar-e hambâzâneš

Fr.: coefficient de corrélation   

A number between -1 and 1 which measures the degree to which two variables are linearly related.

correlation; → coefficient.


Fr.: corrélateur   

In radio astronomy a general term for → autocorrelator and → cross-correlator.

correlate + → -or.


Fr.: corrélogramme   

A plot showing a summary of correlation at different periods of time.

Correlo-, from → correlation; → -gram.


Fr.: correspondre   

To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity; to be similar or equivalent in character, quantity, origin, structure, or function.

From O.Fr. Fr. correspondre, from M.L. correspondere from cor-, → com-, + respondere "to answer," → response.

Hampatvâzidan, from ham-, → com-, + patvâz "response" [Mo'in], from Mid.Pers. patvâc "response," Av. paitivak- + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: correspondance   

The act, fact, or state of agreeing or conforming.

Verbal noun from → correspond.

correspondence principle
  پروز ِ همپتوازی   
parvaz-e hampatvâzi

Fr.: principe de correspondance   

The principle first put forward by N. Bohr according to which the behavior of quantum mechanical laws reduce to classical laws in the limit of large quantum numbers.

correspondence; → principle.

Kalâq (#)

Fr.: Corbeau   

The Crow. A small but fairly conspicuous → constellation in the Southern Hemisphere lying south and west of → Virgo and east of → Crater.

L. corvus "raven," Gk. korax "raven," korone "crow," PIE base *qer-, *qor-, imitative of harsh sounds, cf. Pers. kalâq, Skt. kâkola- "raven."

Kalâq, Mid.Pers. warag, varâq "crow," Lori qelâ, Kordi qel, cf. Skt. kâkola- "raven," PIE base *qer-, *qor-, as above.

kosekânt (#)

Fr.: cosecante   

The → secant of the complement of an arc or angle; abbreviation csc. If θ is an → acute angle of a → right triangle, csc θ = → hypotenuse/(opposite side).

co-; → secante.

kosinus (#)

Fr.: cosinus   

A trigonometric function giving the ratio of the side adjacent to a given angle to the hypotenuse.

Mod.L. complementi sinus, → com-; → sine.

keyhâni (#)

Fr.: cosmique   

Of or relating to the → Universe (instead of universal which may lend to confusion), to the → outer space.

Adj. from → cosmos

cosmic acceleration
  شتاب ِ کیهانی   
šetâb-e keyhâni

Fr.: accélération cosmique   

accelerating Universe.

cosmic; → acceleration.

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)
  پویشگر ِ زمینه‌ی ِ کیهانی   
puyešgar-e zamin-ye keyhâni

Fr.: Satellite COBE   

NASA's satellite, designed to measure the diffuse infrared and → cosmic microwave background radiation from the early → Universe. It was launched on November 18, 1989 and carried three instruments: DIRBE (the Diffuse InfraRed Experiment), DMR (Differential Microwave Radiometers), and FIRAS (Far-InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer). The COBE observations showed that the cosmic microwave background spectrum matches that of a → blackbody of temperature 2.725 ± 0.002 K. COBE also found anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background at a level of a part in 100,000 (→ cosmic microwave background anisotropy). These tiny variations in the intensity of the CMB over the sky show how matter and energy was distributed when the Universe was still very young. Later, through a process still poorly understood, the early structures developed into galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the large scale structure that we see in the Universe today. Two of COBE's principal investigators, George Smoot and John Mather, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006 for their work on the project.

cosmic; → background; → explorer.

cosmic background radiation
  تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ کیهانی   
tâbeš-e paszaminé-ye keyhâni

Fr.: rayonnement du fond cosmique   

cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).

cosmic; → background; → radiation.

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