An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1295
cosmic rays
  پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
partowhâ-ye keyhâni (#)

Fr.: rayons cosmiques   

Extremely energetic atomic nuclei which travel through the Universe at practically the speed of light and strike the Earth from all direction. Almost 90% of all the incoming → primary cosmic rays are → protons, about 9% are helium nuclei (→ alpha particles) and about 1% are → electrons (beta minus particles). Some cosmic rays come from the Sun (mainly due to → solar flares), most come from galactic → supernovae, and a few with the highest energy are suspected to originate from outside the → Milky Way. As for their flux, about 1 charged particle per second per cm2 impacts the Earth. The typical kinetic energy of these particles is about 10 MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon, although there are some at higher energies. In fact, the cosmic ray with the highest energy has been measured above × 1020 eV. These → ultra-high energy cosmic rays are suspected to be extragalactic, as there is no plausible mechanism of acceleration to these energies by a supernova, for example. Again, compare these energies to those of solar neutrinos that have only 0.26 MeV. Cosmic rays may be divided into → primary cosmic rays and → secondary cosmic rays. Their energy ranges from 109 to 1020  → electron-volts.

cosmic; → ray; The term "ray" is a misnomer, as cosmic particles arrive individually, not in the form of a ray or beam of particles.

cosmic scale factor
  کروند ِ مرپل ِ کیهانی   
karvand-e marpal-e keyhâni

Fr.: facteur d'échelle cosmologique   

A quantity, denoted a(t), which describes how the distances between any two galaxies change with time. The physical distance d(t) between two points in the Universe can be expressed as d(t) = R(t).x, where R(t) is the → scale factor and x the → comoving distance between the points. The cosmic scale factor is related to the → redshift, z, by: 1 + z = R(t0)/R(t1), where t0 is the present time and t1 is the time at emission of the radiation. The quantity (1 + z) gives the factor by which the → Universe has expanded in size between t1 and t0. It is also related to the → Hubble parameter by H(t) = R.(t)/R(t), where R.(t) is the time → derivative of the scale factor. In an → expanding Universe the scale factor increases with time. See also the → Friedmann equation.

cosmic; → scale; → factor.

cosmic shear
  کرن ِ کیهانی   
karn-e keyhâni

Fr.: cisaillement cosmique, ~ gravitationnel   

The distortion of images of distant galaxies due to → weak gravitational lensing by → large-scale structures in the → Universe (see, e.g., Kilbinger, M., 2015, arXiv:1411.0115).

cosmic; → shear.

cosmic star formation peak
  چکاد ِ کیهانی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
cakâd-e keyhâni-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: pic de formation stellaire cosmique   

A crucial period in the history of the → Universe, when the bulk of stars in massive galaxies were likely formed. Observations of young stars in distant galaxies at different times in the past have indicated that the → star formation rate peaked at the → redshift of z ~ 2, some 10 billion years ago, before declining by a factor of around ten to its present value (P. Madau & Dickinson, 2014, arXiv:1403.0007).

cosmic; → star; → formation; → peak.

cosmic string
  ریسمان ِ کیهانی   
rismân-e keyhâni

Fr.: corde cosmique   

A hypothetical → cosmic defect predicted to be infinitesimally small in cross section but enormously long and massive. Cosmic strings should not be confounded with → subatomic strings predicted by → string theory.

cosmic; → string.

cosmic texture
  بافت ِ کیهانی   
bâft-e keyhâni

Fr.: texture cosmique   

A type of → cosmic defect in the fabric of space-time predicted in some models of the early Universe.

cosmic; → texture

cosmic time
  زمان ِ کیهانی   
zamân-e keyhâni

Fr.: temps cosmique   

The time as measured by a clock that is at rest relative to the expanding space, and that has been set to zero at the very beginning, the time of the hypothetical → Big Bang singularity. The cosmic time is interpreted as the → age of the Universe (Einstein-online).

cosmic; → time.

cosmic web
  وپ ِ کیهانی   
vap-e keyhâni

Fr.: toile cosmique   

The entire, large-scale structure of the → Universe in which → galaxy clusters are connected by → cosmic filaments (made up of → dark matter and → baryons) in a spongelike geometry, while the low-density → voids are connected to each other by low-density tunnels. The term cosmic web was coined in 1996 by J. Richard Bond et al. (Nature, 380, 603).

cosmic; → web.

cosmic-ray burst
  بلک ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
belk-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: sursaut de rayons cosmiques   

An intense beam of cosmic rays coming from any direction on the sky, which originates outside the solar system.

cosmic; → ray; → burst.

cosmic-ray event
  رویداد ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
ruydâd-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: événement des rayons cosmiques, un cosmique   

Spurious signals in CCD frames caused by ionizing radiation which appear as a set of pixels with intense values sparsely scattered over the CCD frame. High energy particles generate muons, which deposit around 80 electrons per micron in silicon. With a collection depth of 10-20 microns, a cosmic-ray event is seen on a CCD frame as having a signal of up to a few thousand electrons, usually concentrated in one or two pixels. Although attributed to cosmic-ray hits, they may also be due to background terrestrial radiation.

cosmic rays; → event.

cosmic-ray ionization
  یونش ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
yoneš-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: ionisation par rayons cosmiques   

The ionization of → interstellar medium (ISM) gas by → cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are a primary source of ionization, competing with stellar → ultraviolet photons and → X-rays produced by embedded → young stellar objects. Cosmic rays play a key role in the chemistry and dynamics of the interstellar medium. The ionization fraction in turn drives the chemistry of → molecular clouds and controls the coupling of the gas with the Galactic → magnetic field. Moreover, cosmic rays represent an important source of → heating for → molecular clouds because the energy of primary and secondary electrons produced by the ionization process is in large part converted into heat by → inelastic collisions with ISM atoms and → molecules (see, e.g., Padovanit et al., 2009, arXiv:0904.4149).

cosmic; → ray; → ionization.

cosmic-ray shower
  تندبار ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی، رگبار ِ ~   
tondbâr-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni, ragbâr-e ~

Fr.: gerbe cosmique   

An extensive (many kilometres wide) → cascade of ionized particles and electromagnetic radiation produced in the atmosphere when a → primary cosmic rays collides with atmospheric nuclei creating many → secondary cosmic rays. Also known as → air shower.

cosmic; → ray; → shower.

keyhân- (#)

Fr.: cosmo-   

Combining form of → cosmos.


cosmogenic neutrino
  نوترینوی‌ ِ پرتو ِ کیهانی، ~ کیهانزاد   
notrino-ye partow-e keyhâni, ~ keyhânzâd

Fr.: neutrino cosmogénique   

A type of neutrino generated by → UHECRs during their journey from distant sources to the Earth. Also called → ultra high energy neutrino.

Constructed from cosmo-, from → cosmic rays + -genic, → cryogenic.


Fr.: cosmogonie   

A philosophical, religious, or mythical story of the creation or origin of the → Universe, usually referring to the → solar system.

From → cosmo- + -gony, from L. -gonia, from Gk. -goneia, from gonos, offspring; cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zizâite, zâta- "born," Pers. zâdan "give birth, be born", Skt. janati "begets, bears," Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen" L. gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

Keyhânzâyeš, from keyhân, → cosmo-, + zâyeš verbal noun from zâdan "be born; give birth," as above.


Fr.: cosmographie   

The branch of → cosmology concerned with the dimensional structures of the → Universe and their measurement.

cosmo-; → -graphy.

  کیهان‌شناختی، کیهان‌شناسیک   
keyhânšenâxti, keyhânšenâsik

Fr.: cosmologique   

Pertaining or relating to → cosmology.

cosmology; → -al.

cosmological constant
  پایای ِ کیهان‌شناسیک، ~ کیهان‌شناختی   
pâyâ-ye keyhânšenâsik, ~ keyhânšenâxti

Fr.: constante cosmologique   

A term introduced by Einstein into his gravitational → field equations in order to allow a solution corresponding to a → static Universe. The cosmological constant is physically interpreted as due to the → vacuum energy of quantized fields. See also → dark energy.

cosmological; → constant.

cosmological constant problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ پایای ِ کیهانشناختی   
parâse-ye pâyâ-ye keyhânšenâxti

Fr.: problème de la constante cosmologique   

The impressive discrepancy of about 120 orders of magnitude between the theoretical value of the → cosmological constant and its observed value. → Quantum field theory interprets the cosmological constant as the density of the → vacuum energy. This density can be derived from the maximum energy at which the theory is valid, i.e. the → Planck energy scale (1018 GeV). The theoretical vacuum → energy density is (1018 GeV)4 = (1027 eV)4 = 10112 erg cm-3. On the other hand, the observed vacuum energy density is estimated to be about (10-3 eV)4 = 10-8 erg cm-3. There is, therefore, a discrepancy of about 120 orders of magnitude.

cosmological; → constant; → problem.

cosmological distance
  دورای ِ کیهان‌شناسیک، ~ کیهان‌شناختی   
durâ-ye keyhânšenâsik, ~ keyhânšenâxti

Fr.: distance cosmologique   

The distance to a remote galaxy based on its redshift assuming that the redshift is caused by the → Doppler effect and reflects the general expansion of the Universe.

cosmological; → distance .

<< < -ci cal Cal can cap car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer Cha cha cha che chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CN coa coe coi col col col Com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cus cyc > >>