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diamond ring effect oskar-e angoštar-e almâs Fr.: effet anneau de diamant An intense flash of light that happens a few seconds before and after totality during a solar eclipse. The effect is caused by the last rays of sunlight before totality (or the first rays of sunlight after totality) shining through valleys on the edge of the Moon. Oskar, → effect; angoštar "a ring worn on the finger," from angošt "finger," Mid.Pers. angušt "finger, toe," Av. angušta- "toe," from ank- "curved, crooked," cf. Skt. angustha- "thumb," ankah "hook, bent," Gk. angkon "elbow," angkura "anchor," L. angulum "corner" (E. angle), Lith. anka "loop," O.E. ancleo "ankle," O.H.G. ango "hook," PIE base *ang-/*ank- "to bend"; → diamond. |
diaphragm miyânband (#) Fr.: diaphragme A device with a restricted aperture, located in an optical system at any of several points, that cuts off marginal light rays not essential to image formation. From L.L. diaphragma, from Gk. diaphragma "partition, barrier," from diaphrassein "to barricade," from dia- "across" + phrassein "to fence or hedge in." Miyânban, from miyân "middle, interior, between" (Mid.Pers. miyân "middle," Av. maiδya-, maiδyāna- "medium, middle," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, intemediate," Gk. mesos "middle," L. medius "middle," Goth. midjis, O.E. midd "middle," O.C.S. medzu "between," Arm. mej "middle," PIE *medhyo- "middle," , from base *me- "between") + band "barrier, shutter," from bastan "to bind, shut" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind"). |
dichotomy dopâregi Fr.: dichotomie 1) General: A division in two parts or kinds that differ widely from or contradict
each other. From Gk. dichotomia "cutting in two," from dicho- "apart, in two," combining form of dicha "in two, asunder," akin to → di-, + temnein "to cut." Dopâregi, from do→ two + pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment" (Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble") + -(g)i a noun/state suffix. |
dichroic filter pâlâye-ye dofâm (#) Fr.: filtre dichroïque An → interference filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors. |
dichroism dofâmi (#) Fr.: dichroïsme Property of some crystals in which radiation polarized in one plane relative to the crystalline axes is freely transmitted, but radiation polarized perpendicular to this is absorbed. Tourmaline is a natural mineral with this property; Polaroid is a synthetic dichroic substance. From Gk. dichro(os), from di- "two," → di-, + chroma "color" + -ism. Dofâmi, from do "two," → bi- + fâm "color," + -i noun suffix. |
dictionary farhang (#) Fr.: dictionnaire A reference source in print or electronic form containing words alphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, etc. M.L. dictionarium "collection of words and phrases," from L. dictionarius "of words," from dictio "word" from dic-, p.p. stem of L. dicere "speak, tell, say," from PIE root *deik- "to point out;" cf. Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;" cf. Skt. deś- "to show, point out;" → form. Farhang, → culture. |
dielectric nâbarq Fr.: diélectrique A substance in which an electric field gives rise to no net flow of electric charge but to a displacement of charge in opposite directions. The displacement is usually small compared to atomic dimensions. Dielectrics differ from conductors in that they have no free electrons to move through the material under the influence of an electric field. Most insulating materials, e.g. air, porcelain, mica, glass, are dielectrics. A perfect vacuum would constitute a perfect dielectric. → diamagnetic. Dielectric, from Gk. dia- a prefix used with several meanings "passing through; thoroughly; completely; going apart," and in the present case "not, opposed;" → electric. Nâbarg, from nâ- "not," → un-, + barq→ electricity. |
Diesel engine motor-e Diesel (#) Fr.: moteur Diesel Any internal combustion → engine in which → adiabatic compression raises the temperature of air high enough so that fuel ignites spontaneously when injected. After Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), German engineer; → engine. |
Dieterici equation hamugeš-e Dieterici Fr.: équation de Dieterici An → equation of state for → real gases which leads to the → van der Waals equation as a → first approximation. It is of the form P(V - b) [exp (a/VRT)] = RT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the thermodynamic temperature, R is the → gas constant, and a and b are the constants characteristic of the gas. Named after Conrad Dieterici (1858-1929), a German physicist; → equation. |
differ degarsân budan (#) Fr.: différer, être différent To be unlike, dissimilar, or distinct in nature or qualities. From O.Fr. différer, from L. differre "to set apart, differ," from → dis- "away from" + ferre "to carry, bear" (cf. Av. baraiti "carries," O.Pers. barantiy "they carry," Mod.Pers. barad "carries," Skt. bharati "carries," Arm. berem "I carry," Gk. pherein "to carry," O.E., O.H.G. beran, Rus. brat' "to take," bremya "a burden"). Degarsân "different," from degar "another, other" (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second," O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second," Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career") + budan "to be" (Mid.Pers. budan, from O.Pers./Av. bav- "to be; become, take place," Av. buta- perf. ptcpl. pass., bavaiti "becomes," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," bhavah "becoming; condition, state," PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow," L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future," Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist, E. to be, O.Ir. bi'u "I am," Lith. bu'ti "to be," Rus. byt' "to be"). |
difference degarsâni (#) Fr.: différence The quality or condition of being different. Noun form of → differ. |
different degarsân (#) Fr.: différent Not alike in character or quality; differing; dissimilar. Adj. of → difference. |
differentiability degarsânipaziri Fr.: différentiabilité Of a mathematical function, the quality of being → differentiable. Noun from → differentiable. |
differentiable degarsânipazir, degarsânidani Fr.: différentiable Capable of being → differentiated. → differentiable function. From → differentiate + → -able. |
differentiable function karyâ-ye degarsânipazir, ~ degarsânidani Fr.: différentiable Property of a mathematical function if it has a → derivative at a given point. From → differentiable; → function. |
differential 1) degarsâné; 2) degarsâneyi Fr.: différentiel 1) Noun. From M.L. differentialis, from differenti(a), → difference, + → -al. Degarsâné, from degarsân, → different + noun suffix -é. |
differential and integral calculus afmârik-e degarsâne-yi va dorostâli Fr.: calcul différentiel et intégral The two branches of mathematics that make up the → calculus. → differential calculus; → integral calculus. → differential; → integral; → calculus. |
differential calculus afmârik-e degarsâneyi, ~ degarsânehâ Fr.: calcul différentiel A branch of calculus which is concerned with the instantaneous rate of change of quantities with respect to other quantities, or more precisely, the local behavior of functions. → integral calculus. → differential; → calculus. |
differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâneyi Fr.: équation différentielle An equation expressing a relationship between an → independent variable, x, an unknown → function, y = f(x), and its → derivatives. The general form of a differential equation is: F(x, y, y', y'', ..., y^{(n)}) = 0, or F(x,y, dy/dx, d^{2}y/dx^{2}, ..., d^{n}y/dx^{n}) = 0. See also: → ordinary differential equation; → partial differential equation; → linear differential equation; → exact differential equation; → first-order differential equation; → homogeneous linear differential equation; → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation; → differential equation with separated variables; → differential equation with separable variables. → differential; → equation. |
differential equation with separable variables hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vartandehhâ-ye jodâyi-pazir Fr.: équation différentielle à variables séparables A → differential equation of the form: M_{1}(x) N_{1}(y) dx + M_{2}(x) N_{2}(y) dy = 0, which can be reduced to a → differential equation with separated variables. → differential; → equation; → separate; → variable. |
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