An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 737
deadline
  روزبند   
ruzband

Fr.: date limite, ~ boutoir, ~ de clôture   

The time by which something must be finished or submitted; the latest time for finishing something (Dictionary.com).

Historically, during the American Civil War, the term referred to a physical line or boundary beyond which prisoners were shot; → dead; → line.

Ruzband, literally "day lock, that which blocks date," from ruz, → day, + band, → bond; cf. Ger. Stichtag, Anmeldeschluss, Einsendeschluss and Fr. date de clôture.

death
  مرگ   
marg (#)

Fr.: mort   

The act of dying; the end of life.

M.E. deeth, O.E. deað (cf. O.S. doth, O.Fris. dath, Du. dood, O.H.G. tod, Ger. Tod, O.N. dauði, Dan. død, Swed. död, Goth. dauþas "death"), from *dheu- "to die" + *-thuz "-th;"

Marg "death," from Mid.Pers. marg "death;" Av. mahrka- "death," mərəxš- "ruin;" related to Mod.Pers. mordan (present stem mir-) "to die;" Mid.Pers. murdan "to die;" O.Pers. mrt- "to die," amriyta "dies," martiya- "(mortal) man" (Mod.Pers. mard "man"); Av. mərəta- "died;" cf. Skt. mar- "to die," mrti- "death," marc- "to damage, hurt, injure;" PIE base *mor-/*mr- "to die." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. emorten "died," ambrotos "immortal;" L. morior "I die," mortuus "dead" (Fr. mourir "to die," mort "dead"); Arm. merani- "to die;" O.C.S. mrutvu "dead;" O.Ir. marb; Welsh marw "died;" O.E. morþ "murder;" Lith. mirtis.

debate
  ۱) وازت؛ ۲) وازتیدن   
1) vâzat; 2) vâzatidan

Fr.: 1) débat; 2) débattre   

1a) A → discussion, as of a public question in an assembly, involving opposing viewpoints.
1b) A formal contest in which the affirmative and negative sides of a proposition are advocated by opposing speakers.
2) To engage in argument or discussion, as in a legislative or public assembly (Dictionary.com).

M.E. debaten, from O.Fr. debatre, literally "to fight," from → de- "down, completely," + batre "to beat," → beat.

Vâzat, from vâ-, → de-, + zat- (Baluci žat-) variant of zad-, zadan "to strike, beat", → beat.

debias
  ورک زدودن   
varak zodudan

Fr.: soustraire le biais   

To substract the → bias from a flat-field or science frame obtained using an electronic detector.

Debias, from → de- + → bias.

Varak zodudan, from varakbias + zodudan "to polish, clean," Mid.Pers. uzdātan, Av. uzdā-, from uz-, → ex-, + dā- "make, create."

debiasing
  ورک زدایی   
varak zodâyi

Fr.: soustraction du biais   

The process of removing the → bias from a → flat-field or science → frame. → debias

Verbal noun of → debias.

deblend
  توهم زدودن   
tuham zodudan

Fr.: séparer les composantes   

In → spectroscopy, to → resolve a → blend into its constituent → spectral lines.

Deblend, from → de- + → blend.

Tuham, → blend, + zodudan "to polish, clean," Mid.Pers. uzdātan, Av. uzdā-, from uz-, → ex-, + dā- "make, create."

deblending
  توهم زدایی   
tuham zodâyi

Fr.: séparation des composantes   

The process or state of separating or resolving into constituent → spectral lines.

Verbal noun of deblend, from → de- + → blend.

deblur
  تیگیدن، تیگ کردن   
tigidan, tig kardan

Fr.: affiner   

To → increase the → spatial resolution or the clearness of an → image. Same as → sharpen. See also → deconvolve.

Deblur, from → de- + → blur.

Tigidan "to sharpen," from tig "sharp," variants tiz, tež, tej, tij, tiq, Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians)," Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.

deblurring
  تیگش، تیگی   
tigeš, tigi

Fr.: affinage   

The process or state of making an image sharper. → deblur; same as sharpening. → deconvolution.

Verbal noun of → deblur.

debris
  تیفال   
tifâl

Fr.: débris   

The remains of anything broken down or destroyed; rubble; ruins.
Astro.: → debris disk; → orbital debris.
Geology: An accumulation of loose fragments of rock.

From Fr. débris, from M.Fr. débriser "break down, crush," from O.Fr. debrisier, → de- + brisier "to break," from L.L. brisare.

Tifâl, from tif "rubbish, sweepings, debris" + -al relation suffix → -al.

debris disk
  گرده‌ی ِ تیفال   
gerde-ye tifâl

Fr.: disque de débris   

A disk developing around a star after the dissipation of the → protoplanetary disk of gas and dust whose material was used in the formation of planets during the first 10 million years. The resulting debris disk is mainly composed of residual → planetesimals analogous to → asteroids, → comets, and → Kuiper Belt Objects in the Solar System. Their mutual collisions produce observable → dust emission in a belt encompassing the planetary system.

debris; → disk.

debye (D)
  دبی   
debye (#)

Fr.: debye   

A → unit of electric → dipole moments, equal to 10-18 → CGS units or 3.336 x 10-30 → coulomb meter.

After Peter Joseph Wilhelm Debye (1884-1966), Dutch-born American, who made important studies in the conductivity of electricity by salt solutions and in the heat capacity of solids. He received the 1936 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the structure of molecules.

Debye law
  قانون ِ دبی   
qânun-e Debye (#)

Fr.: loi de Debye   

The → Debye model at → low  → temperatures, where the → specific heat is proportional to the cube of the → absolute temperature, i.e. CV ∝ T3.

debye; → law.

Debye length
  درازای ِ دبی   
derâzâ-ye Debye (#)

Fr.: longueur de Debye   

A characteristic length scale in a → plasma, determined by the temperature and number density of the charged particles. The Debye length (in cm) is given by the expression: λD = 743(Te/ne)1/2, where Te is the electron temperature in → electron-volts and ne is the electron density in cm-3. Particles which pass each other at distances smaller than the Debye length interact directly. Outside the Debye length particle interactions are dominated by collective effects. In typical laboratory plasmas the Debye length is small compared with the plasma dimension, so that collective effects are important.

debye (D); → length.

Debye model
  مدل ِ دبی   
model-e Debye (#)

Fr.: modèle de Debye   

An extension of the → Einstein model accounting for → specific heats, based on the concept of → elastic waves in → crystals. In this model specific heat is given by: CV = 9R[(4/x2)∫ y2/(ey - 1)dy - x/(ex - 1)], integrating from 0 to x, where R is the → gas constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, x = hνmax/k, and y = hν/k. The parameter TD = hνmax/k is the characteristic → Debye temperature of the crystal. At low temperatures the specific heat prediction by this model is in good agreement with observations (→ Debye law), in contrast to Einstein's model.

debye; → temperature.

Debye temperature
  دمای ِ دبی   
damâ-ye Debye (#)

Fr.: température de Debye   

The characteristic → temperature of the → crystal as given by the → Debye model of → specific heats.

debye; → temperature.

deca-
  دکا-   
dekâ- (#)

Fr.: déca-   

Prefix meaning "ten" and "ten times" used in terms belonging to the metric system.

From Fr. déca-, from L. deca-, dec-, from Gk. deka "ten;" cf. Av. dasa "ten," Mod.Pers. dah "ten," Skt. dasa, PIE *dekm (Dan. ti, Du. tien, Ger. zehn, E. ten, Fr. dix).

Dekâ-, from Fr. as above.

decay
  ۱) تباهیدن؛ ۲) تباهی، فروپاشی   
1) tabâhidan (#); 2) tabâhi (#), forupâši (#)

Fr.: 1) se désintegrer; 2) désintegration   

1a) To become decomposed.
1b) Of a radioactive nucleus, to disintegrate spontaneously into one or more different nuclei, accompanied by the emission of → alpha particles, → beta particles, → positrons, and/or → gamma rays.
2a) Decomposition.
2b) Of a spacecraft, a gradual decrease in the radius of its orbit over time, caused by aerodynamic drag of the atmosphere and other forces. The rate of orbit decay rises as the spacecraft falls and encounters increasing atmospheric density, eventually resulting in reentry. → alpha decay; → beta decay; → dark matter decay; → decay chain; → decay constant; → decay mode; → decay product; → decay time; → inverse beta decay; → Ohmic decay time; → orbit decay; → radioactive decay; → turbulence decay.

From O.Fr. decair, from V.L. *decadere "to fall off," from L. cadere "to fall," PIE base *kad- "to fall" (cf. Pers. Gilaki katan "to fall," ba.ka.tam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (lose) reputation," Pers. Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he fell," beko "fall!," Pers. Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakət.gu "stray cow," Arm. chacnum "to fall").

Tabâhidan, verbal form of tabâhi, noun form of tabâh "spoiled, ruined, destroyed," Mid.Pers. tapâh "spoiled, destroyed." Maybe related to Mod.Pers. tâb "affliction, pain, torment; heat, burning," tab "fever," tâbidan, tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot," Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth," cf. Skt. tap- "to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer; to heat, be/become hot," tapati "burns," L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm," PIE base *tep- "warm."

decay chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ تباهی   
zanjire-ye tabâhi

Fr.: chaîne de désintégration   

A series of nuclear decays produced by successive → daughter products, when the daughters are themselves → radioactive. For example, the decay chain N1N2N3→ ... in which the parent nuclide N1 decays to the daughter N2, which in turn decays to N3. Each → radionuclide in the decay chain can → branch to more than one daughter.

decay; → chain.

decay constant
  پایای ِ تباهی   
pâyâ-ye tabâhi

Fr.: constante de désintégration   

A constant of proportionality occurring in the formula expressing spontaneous → decay of → radionuclides. The number of atoms decaying is given by N = N0e-kt, where N0 is the number of nuclei in the given volume of the substance at instant t = 0, N is the number of nuclei at t, and k is decay constant. Decay constant is related to → half-life by τ = ln2/k, roughly 0.693/k.

decay; → constant.

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