Fr.: état éléctronique
In molecular quantum mechanics, any of → quantum states corresponding to a particular → electron configuration (i.e. an arrangement of the electron(s) in certain → orbitals). The electron configuration with the lowest energy is called the → ground state. All higher energy states are called → excited states.
Fr.: transition électronique
An instrument for detecting electric charges or → potential differences.
Referring to electric charges at rest.
Fr.: charge électrostatique
A quantity of electricity at rest on the surface of an insulator or an insulated conductor.
meydân-e barqistâ (#)
Fr.: champ électrostatique
A region of space in which a non-moving → electric charge would be subjected to a force of attraction or repulsion as a result of the presence of another stationary electric charge. The electrostatic field is a special case of the → electromagnetic field.
Fr.: induction électrostatique
The production of stationary electric charges on an uncharged object as a result of a charged body being brought near it without touching it. A positive charge will induce a negative charge, and vice versa.
electrostatic unit (esu)
yekâ-ye barqistâ-ye bâr
Fr.: unité électrostatique de charge
The unit of electric charge in the → cgs system of units. Also called the → statcoulomb. The esu is defined such that if two objects, each carrying a charge of +1 esu, are 1 cm aparat, then they repel each other with a force of 1 → dyne. 1 esu = 3.3356 × 10-10 → coulombs.
Fr.: onde électrostatique
In a → plasma, a disturbance that is devoid of magnetic field, and hence can be expressed by an electrostatic potential. The electric field is always parallel to the propagation vector, so that the electrostatic wave is → longitudinal.
The branch of → electricity dealing with the phenomena and properties of stationary → electric charges, as opposed to → electrodynamics. It involves the build-up of charge on the → surface of → objects due to → contact with other surfaces.
Fr.: époque électrofaible
A period in the early history of the Universe lasting from 10-36 to 10-12 seconds after the → Big Bang. The electroweak epoch begins at the same time as cosmic → inflation is triggered. This is also the time when the → strong force breaks from the → grand unified force and ends with another → phase transition will occur in which the → weak interaction breaks from the → electroweak force.
niru-ye barqânezâr, ~ barqâkamzur
Fr.: force électrofaible
The force that takes part in an → electroweak interaction.
Fr.: interaction électrofaible
The unified description of two of the four fundamental interactions of nature, → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction which would merge into a single force under conditions of extreme temperature (above 1016 degrees, 102 GeV) prevalent in the early history of the → Universe.
Fr.: étoile électrofaible
A postulated type of star that could form toward the end of a → massive star's life, after → nuclear fusion has stopped in its → core, and before the star → collapses into a → black hole. In those → extreme conditions, when → temperature and → density inside the star are very high, → quarks could convert into → leptons. Hence huge amounts of energy can be released, much of which would be in the form of → neutrinos.
Elegance quality; something elegant.
Noun from → elegant.
Gracefully refined and dignified, as in tastes, habits, or literary style; graceful in form or movement; excellent; fine; superior (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from M.Fr., from L. elegantem (nominative elegans) "choice, fine, tasteful," from eligere "to select, choose."
Qašang "elegant, nicely fitted up" (Steingass), variant šang; cf. Sogd. xšang "beautiful, magnificient, excellent," maybe related to Av. xšnu- "to entertain, welcome, take care of (a guest)," O.Pers. xšnu- "to be satisfied, glad," Pers. xošnud "satisfied, content."
Fr.: équation élégante
An equation with surprising simplicity that expresses a fundamental result relating several apparently unassociable elements. For example, → Euler's formula for the particular case of θ = π, and the → mass-energy relation.
bonpâr (#), onsor (#)
1) General: A component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a
whole may be resolved by analysis.
From O.Fr. élément, from L. elementum "rudiment, one of the four elements, first principle," origin unknown.
Bonpâr, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning," Av. būna- "base, depth," cf. Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree" + pâr contraction of pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble." Onsor from Ar.