Fr.: processus endoénergétique
A nuclear or molecular process in which some of the energy of the incoming particle is absorbed by, or transferred to, the other particle.
→ endo- + -ergic, a combining form with the meanings "activated by, sensitive to, releasing, resembling the effect produced by the substance or phenomenon specified by the initial element," from → erg, → energy + → -ic; → process.
Farâravand, → process; kâružgir, from kâruž, → energy, + gir present stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").
farâravand-e garmâgir (#)
Fr.: processus endothermique
Process during which heat is absorbed by the system from outside.
From garmâ "heat, warmth" (Mid.Pers. garm, O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm," cf. Skt. gharmah "heat," Gk. thermos "warm," L. formus "warm," P.Gmc. *warmaz, O.E. wearm, O.H.G., Ger. warm, PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm-, as above) + gir present tense stem of gereftan "to take, seize, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").
1) pâyidan; 2) tâb âvardan
Fr.: 1) durer; 2) supporter, endurer, tolérer
1) Remain in existence; last.
From L. indurare "make hard," from in- + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," → duration.
1) kâružmand; 2) kâruži
Fr.: 1) de grande énergie, énergique; 2) énergétique
1) Having a relatively high amount of energy.
energetic solar particles
zarrehâ-ye xoršidi-ye kâružmand
Fr.: particules solaires énergétiques
Electrons and atomic nuclei ejected by solar flares, travelling with velocities amounting to a fraction of the velocity of light, and energies mostly in the range 1-100 million → electronvolts (eV), but occasionally as high as 15 billion eVs. Also known as solar → cosmic rays.
The total energy relations and transformations of energy within a particular physical, chemical, or biological system.
In physics, capacity for doing work.
From M.Fr. energie, from L.L. energia, from Gk. energeia "force in action, activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en- "in, at" + ergon "work," from PIE base *werg- "to work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue").
Kâruž, literally "work strength," from kâr + už. The first component kâr "work," Mid.Pers kâr, Mod./Mid.Pers. kardan "to do, to work," Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make." The second component, už, from Mid.Pers. ôž "strength" (ôžômand "strong"), Av. aogah-, aojah- "strength" (aojahvant- "strong") Skt. ojas- "strength" (ojasvant- "strong"); L. augustus "venerable," L.L. augmentare "to increase," from augere "to increase, enlarge, enrich;" Lith. augu "to grow;" Gk. auxo "increase;" Goth. aukan "to grow, increase;" O.E. eacien "to increase"); PIE *augos- "force," *aug- "to increase."
Fr.: cascade d'énergie
The → turbulent process whereby → kinetic energy is transformed into heat by the action of nonlinear coupling which transfers the energy from large eddies (→ eddy) to smaller and smaller eddies, finally arriving at → dissipative scales dominated by → viscosity (direct cascade). In the simplest case (3D homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence), the resulting energy distribution is the → Kolmogorov spectrum. The reverse process also exists (inverse cascade) whereby energy is transferred to larger and larger eddies.
Fr.: densité d'énergie
The amount of energy in the form of radiation per unit volume, expressed in ergs cm-3. In particular, the energy density of blackbody radiation at temperature T is aT4, where the radiation constant a = 7.56 × 10-15 erg cm-3 (K)-4.
energy generation equation
hamugeš-e âzâneš-e kâruž
Fr.: équation de génération d'énergie
energy generation rate
nerx-e âzâneš-e kâruž
Fr.: taux de génération d'énergie
Of a stellar → nuclear fusion, the energy produced per unit mass per unit time, usually denoted ε (erg g-1s-1). The general form of the energy generation equation is: ε = ε0ρλTν, where ε0, ρ, and λ are constants over some efficiently restricted range of → temperature T, → density ρ, and → chemical composition. The temperature exponent ν is about 4, 15, and 40 for → proton-proton chain, → CNO cycle, and → triple alpha process, respectively.
Fr.: niveau d'énergie
Any of the several discrete states of energy which a particle, atom, or molecule can adopt under conditions where the possible values are restricted by quantum mechanical laws.
Fr.: spectre d'énergie
Of cosmic rays, the plot representing the number of particles as a function of their energy.
Fr.: état d'énergie
Same as → energy level.
Fr.: transfert d'énergie
Fr.: tenseur énergie-quantité de mouvement
1) Any machine that converts energy, especially heat energy, into mechanical power
M.E. engin, from O.Fr. engin "skill, cleverness; war machine," from L. ingenium "inborn qualities, talent," from → in- "in" + gen-, root of gignere "to beget, produce;" cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth;" → generate.
Motor, loanword from Fr. moteur, from L. motor "mover," from movere "to move."
A person who designs, constructs, or works with engines or machines.
M.E. engin(e)our, from O.Fr. engigneor, from L.L. ingeniare, → engine.
Mohandes, from Ar. muhandis "measurer," from Pers. andâzé, → measure.
The action, work, or profession of an engineer.