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equilibrium state estât-e tarâzmandi, hâlat-e ~ Fr.: état d'équilibre A state in which a → thermodynamic system is in → thermodynamic equilibrium. → equilibrium; → state. |
equinoctial hamugâni Fr.: équinoxial Of or relating to an equinox or to the equality of day and night. Adjective of → equinox. |
equinoctial colure koldom-e hamugâni Fr.: colure d'équinoxe The great circle of the celestial sphere through the celestial poles and equinoxes; the hour circle of the vernal equinox. → colure. → equinoctial; → colure. |
equinoctial points noqtehâ-ye hamugâni Fr.: points équinoxiaux One of the two points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator. Same as equinox. → equinoctial; → point. |
equinox hamugân Fr.: équinoxe 1) One of the two points on the → celestial sphere
where the → celestial equator intersects the
→ ecliptic, that is when the apparent
→ ecliptic longitude of the Sun is 0° or 180°. M.E., from O.Fr. équinoxe, from M.L. equinoxium "equality of night (and day)," from L. æquinoctium, from æquus, "→ equal" + nox "→ night" (gen. noctis). In Gk. isimeria "equal day," from isos "equal," → iso-, + hemera "day." From hamug, → equal, + -ân suffix denoting time and place. |
equipartition of energy hamugpâri-ye kâruž Fr.: équipartition de l'énergie 1) General: Equal sharing of the → total energy among all
→ components of a → system. |
equipotential surface ruye-ye hamugtavand Fr.: surface équipotentielle An imaginary surface surrounding a body, or group of bodies, over which the gravitational field is of constant strength and, at all points, is directed perpendicular to the surface. For a single star the surface is spherical. In a close binary system the equipotential surface of the components interact to become hourglass-shaped. → Roche lobe; → Lagrangian points. |
equivalence hamug-arzi (#) Fr.: équivalence The state or fact of being equivalent; equality in value, force, significance, etc. → covalence. From M.F. from M.L. æquivalentia, from L. æquivalent-, → equivalent. Hamug-arzi, noun of hamug-arz, → equivalent. |
equivalence principle parvaz-e hamug-arzi Fr.: principe d'équivalence A fundamental concept of physics, put forward by A. Einstein, that states that gravitational and inertial forces are of a similar nature and indistinguishable. In other words, acceleration due to gravity is equivalent to acceleration due to other forces, and gravitational mass is the same as inertial mass. Same as the → principle of equivalence. → equivalence; → principle. |
equivalent hamug-arz Fr.: équivalent Equal in value, measure, force, effect, significance, etc. From L.L. æquivalentem (nominative æquivalens) "equivalent," p.p. of æquivalere "be equivalent," from L. æquus, → equal + valere "to be worth; be strong." Hamug-arz, from hamug-, → equi-, + arz stem of arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth;" Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *alg^{w}h- "to earn; price, value." |
equivalent depth žarfâ-ye ham-arz Fr.: profondeur équivalente A measure of the number of particles passing a given point in a → planetary ring per unit time. It is obtained by multiplying the physical width of the ring by its average → optical depth. For the variable-width eccentric rings of → Uranus, equivalent depth remains almost constant around a given ring (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). → equivalent; → depth. |
equivalent positions nehešhâ-ye hamug-arz Fr.: Complete set of points in any given space group which are obtained by performing the symmetry operations of the space group on a single point (x, y, z). → equivalent; → position. |
equivalent width pahnâ-ye hamug-arz Fr.: largeur équivalente 1) A measure of the → strength of a
→ spectral line. The equivalent width is the width of a
→ rectangle centered on a spectral line that, on a plot of
→ intensity against → wavelength,
has the same → area as the line. → equivalent; → width. |
Equuleus Pâré asb (#), Korré Asb Fr.: Petit Cheval The Foal. A small, faint constellation in the northern hemisphere, lying between → Delphinus and → Pegasus, at 21h 10m right ascension, 5° north declination. Its brightest star, Kitalpha, has a visual magnitude of 3.9. Abbreviation: Equ; Genitive: Equulei. L. Equuleus "little horse," diminutive of equus "horse," from PIE base *ekwos "horse" (cf. Pers. asb; Av. aspa- "horse;" Skt. áśva-; Gk. hippos; O.E. eoh; Arm. ēš). The origin of Equuleus is not clear. It is not mentioned in any classical Gk. or Roman myths. The first mention of the constellation was in Ptolemy's catalog, where it is referred to as Hippou Protome "the bust or upper part of an animal figure." Some mythologists have associated Equuleus with the foal Celeris, the brother of the winged horse Pegasus, given to Castor by Mercury. Pâré asb "part of a horse," from
pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment" (Mid.Pers. pârag
"piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from
par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;"
PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars
"part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai
"it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya-
"to break, crumble") + asb "horse," Mid.Pers. asb;
O.Pers. asa- "horse;" Av. aspa-
"horse," aspā- "mare," āsu.aspa- "unbound horse;"
Skt. áśvā- "mare;" cognate with L. equus, as above. |
era dowrân (#) Fr.: ère General: A period of time marked by a distinctive character,
events, etc. From L.L. æra, era "fixed date, era, epoch from which time is reckoned," probably identical with L. æra "counters used for calculation," plural of aes "brass, money," from PIE *aus- "gold" (cf. Av. aiiah- "metal," aiianhaēna- "made of metal;" Skt. áyas- "metal;" O.H.G. ēr "ore;" O.E. ora "ore, unworked metal;" Ger. ehern "brazen"). Dowrân, from Ar. daur "age, time; revolution." |
Eratosthenes' method raveš-e Eratosthenes Fr.: méthode d'Eratosthène A simple way of calculating the Earth's → circumference using two sticks and two theorems of the → Euclidean geometry. Eratosthenes calculated the length of a → meridian arc by measuring the shadow cast by a vertical → gnomon at noon on the → summer solstice. In Cyene (→ tropic of Cancer), no shadow is cast whereas in Alexandria, further north, the shadow is cast at an angle of 1/50 of 360° (measured using a → scaphe), or 7.2°, from the vertical. The circumference is therefore equal to 50 times the distance between the two cities. The distance from Syene to Alexandria was 5,000 stadia, which when multiplied by 50 gives the measure for the Earth's circumference, 250,000 stadia. Estimating the accuracy of this result is not easy because the unit of stadium is not uniquely defined in the ancient world. The most likely reconstruction puts Eratosthenes' stadium in the range 155-185m, implying an error of about 3% below or 15% above the true value. The modern value for the equatorial circumference of the Earth is 40,075 km. As scholars have pointed out, Eratosthenes' experiment was marred by several errors: Syene is not on the Tropic of cancer, it is not on the same meridian as Alexandria, and the distance between the two cities is less than he estimated. But the errors tended to cancel each other out, so his estimate was relatively accurate. See also: → Mamun's method, → Biruni's method. Eratosthenes (c. 276-194 B.C.), Gk. mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He studied in Athens and later became a librarian in Alexandria. His treatise On the Measuring of the Earth is lost. The account of his experiment has been preserved in Cleomedes (probably first century A.D.). See also → sieve of Eratosthenes; → experiment. |
erg erg (#) Fr.: erg The → CGS unit of → energy; the → work done by a → force of 1 → dyne acting over a distance of 1 → centimeter. 1 erg = 10^{-7} → joules = 6.242 × 10^{11} → electron-volts. From Gk. ergon "work," from PIE base *werg- "to work" (cf. Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" Mod.Pers. varz-, varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue"). |
ergodic ergodik (#) Fr.: ergodique The property of a dynamical system such that in an interval of sufficient duration, it will return to states that are closely similar to previous ones. |
ergonomics varzdâtik Fr.: ergonomie The study of the relationship between people and their working environment, in particular its effect on a person's efficiency. Ergonomics is applied in designing equipment and office systems to maximize productivity by reducing discomfort and fatigue of people in their workplace. From Gk. ergon "work," → erg, + -nomics, → -nomy, → -ics. Varzdâtik, from varz "work, " cognate with Gk. ergon, → erg, + dâtik "law, rule," → -nomy. |
ergosphere ergsepehr Fr.: ergosphère The region between the → event horizon and the → stationary limit of a rotating → Kerr black hole. It is possible for a particle falling inside the ergosphere to break into two parts, one of which will fall into the black hole and the other will come out. |
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