An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 658
farsâyeš (#)

Fr.: érosion   

Geology: The act or state of eroding; state of being eroded.
A general term applied to the wearing away and movement of earth materials by the action of water, glaciers, winds, gravity, etc.

From M.Fr. erosion, from L. erosionem (nom. erosio), from erodere "to gnaw away," from → ex- "away" + rodere "to gnaw, eat away" (cf. Fr. and E. animal rat).

Farsâyeš, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant" (Mid.Pers. fra- "forward, before; much; around;" O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā, fərā-, fra- "forward, forth; excessive;" cf. Skt. prá- "before; forward, in fron;" Gk. pro "before, in front of;" L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" PIE *pro-) + verbal noun of sâyidan, variants sâbidan "to bruise, file," pasâvidan "to touch;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub."


Fr.: Errai   

Same as → Gamma Cephei.

From Ar. ar-râ'i (الراعی) "the shepherd."

  ایرنگ، خطا   
irang (#), xatâ (#)

Fr.: erreur   

1) A deviation from accuracy or correctness; a mistake.
2) Physics: The difference between the calculated or observed value and the true value of a quantity. See also:
absolute error, → bias error, → calibration error, → cascade error, → error bar, → fitting error, → instrument error, → observational error, → probable error (PE), → random error, → relative error, → root-mean-square error, → sampling error, → standard error, → systematic error, → Type I error, → Type II error.

From O.Fr. erreur, from L. errorem (nom. error) "a wandering, straying, mistake," from errare "to wander."

Irang, from Mid.Pers. êrang "error, mistake;" xatâ, from Ar.

error bar
  بند ِ ایرنگ، ~ خطا   
band-e irang, ~ xatâ

Fr.: barre d'erreur   

On a graph displaying the results of a measurement, the dash used to indicate the confidence range of the value attributed to a quantity.

error; bar, from O.Fr. barre, from V.L. *barra "bar, barrier," or perhaps from Gaulish *barro "summit."

Band "that which closes, shuts, blocks," from bastan, band- "to shut, bind," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind); → error.


Fr.: entrer en éruption   

To burst forth; to eject matter (of a star, volcano, geyser, etc.). → eruptive variable.

From L eruptus "burst forth, broken out," p.p. of erumpere "to break out, burst forth," from → ex- "out" + rumpere "to break, rupture."

Osdaridan, from os-, → ex- + daridan "to tear, rend, lacerate;" Mid.Pers. darridan "to tear, split;" Av. dar- "to tear," dərəta- "cut," auua.dərənant- "shattering;" cf. Skt. dar- "to crack, split, break, burst," darati "he splits;" Gk. derein "to flay," derma "skin;" P.Gmc. *teran; O.E. teran; E. tear; Ger. zerren "to pull, to tear," zehren "to undermine, to wear out;" PIE base *der- " to split, peel, flay."


Fr.: éruption   

1) An act, process, or instance of erupting; something that is erupted or ejected.
2) → flare.
3) Geology: The ejection of molten rock, steam, etc., as from a volcano or geyser.

Verbal noun of → erupt.


Fr.: éruptif   

Relating to, formed by, characterized by, or producing → eruption.

eruption; → -ive.

eruptive object
  بر‌آخت ِ اسدرشی   
barÂxt-e osdareši

Fr.: objet éruptif   

An astronomical object such as a → variable star, a → nova, a → young stellar object, etc. characterized by abrupt changes of luminosity.

eruptive; → object.

eruptive prominence
  زبانه‌ی ِ اسدرشی   
zabâne-ye osdareši

Fr.: protubérance éruptive   

A huge solar prominence which has previously been quiescent but suddenly starts to lift up from the → photosphere with velocities of several hundred km/s and escapes into the → interplanetary space. Eruptive prominences with the highest velocities have been observed at 1300 km/s, reaching heights of 1 million km above the photosphere. Such prominences are often observed at the solar limb, in association with → coronal mass ejections. On the Sun's disk, the equivalent phenomenon is an eruptive filament.

eruptive; → prominence

eruptive variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ اسدرشی   
vartande-ye osdareši

Fr.: variable éruptive   

same as → cataclysmic variable.

eruptive; → variable.

  ۱) گریختن، ۲) گریز   
1) gorixtan, 2) goriz (#)

Fr.: 1) échapper, s'échapper; 2) échapement   

1) To get away; to get free of.
2) An act or instance of escaping.

From M.E. escapen; O.Fr. eschaper, from V.L. *excappare, literally "to get out of one's cape, leave a pursuer with just one's cape," from L. → ex- "out" + L.L. cappa "mantle."

Gorixtan, goriz- "to escape; to flee, run away;" Mid.Pers. virextan; Proto-Iranian *vi-raik, from vi- "apart, asunder" + *raik; Av. raek- "to leave, set free, let off;" Mid./Mod.Pers. reg/rig (in mordé-rig "inheritance"); Skt. ric- "to leave," rinakti "gives up, evacuates;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" from PIE *linkw-, from *leikw- "to leave behind" (cf. Goth. leihvan; O.E. lænan "to lend;" O.H.G. lihan "to borrow;" O.N. lan "loan").

escape velocity
  تندای ِ گریز   
tondâ-ye goriz

Fr.: vitesse d'échapement   

The speed an object must attain in order to free itself from the gravitational influence of an astronomical body. It is the minimum velocity for the object to enter a parabolic trajectory. The escape velocity is given by: Ve = (2GM/r)1/2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the astronomical body, and r is its radius. The escape velocity of the Earth is about 11.2 km s-1, that of the Moon is 2.4 km s-1, and that of the Sun about 618 km s-1.

escape; → velocity.

  نشاختن، نشازیدن   
nešâxtan, nešâzidan

Fr.: établir   

1) To found, institute, build, or bring into being on a firm or stable basis.
2) To show to be valid or true; prove.

From O.Fr. establiss-, stem of establir, from L. stabilire "make stable," from stabilis "firm, stable," literally "able to stand," from stare "to stand;" PIE base *sta- "to stand" (cf. Mod.Pers. istâdan "to stand;" O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh;" stasis "a standing still;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; O.E. standan "to stand," stede "place").

Nešâxtan, nešâzidan "to establish; to fix in the ground, strengthen," from ne- "down, below," → ni-, + šâxtan, šâz-, variants of Mod./Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz- "to form, prepare, build, make," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *sac- "to fit, be suitable; to prepare."


Fr.: 1, 2, 3, 4) établissement; 4) les pouvoirs établis   

1) The act or an instance of establishing.
2) The state or fact of being established.
3) Something established; a constituted order or system.
4) (often initial capital letter) The existing power structure in society; the dominant groups in society and their customs or institutions (

establish; → -ment.

  ۱) ارج؛ ۲) ارج نهادن   
1) arj (#); 2) arj nehâdan

Fr.: 1) estime; 2) estimer   

1) Favorable opinion or judgment; respect or regard.
2) To regard highly or favorably; regard with respect or admiration (

M.E. estemen, from M.Fr. estimer, from L. aestimare "to value, determine the value of, appraise," → estimate.

Arj "esteem, honor, dignity; price, worth, value," → credit. Arj nehâdan with nehâdan "to place, put," → position.

arjmand (#)

Fr.: estimable, digne d'estime   

Worthy of esteem; deserving respect or admiration. Capable of being estimated (

esteem; → -able.

  ۱) بر‌آورد؛ ۲) بر‌آوردن، بر‌آورد کردن   
1) barâvard (#); 2) barâvardan (#), barâvard kardan (#)

Fr.: 1) estimation; 2) estimer   

1) Statistics: An indication of the value of an unknown quantity based on observed data.
2) Verb of estimate.

From M.Fr. estimer, from L. æstimatus, p.p. of æstimare "to value, estimate."

Barâvard from prefix bar- "on, upon, up," → on-, + âvard past stem of âvardan "to bring, to cause, to produce," → production; verb with infinitive suffix -dan and kardan "to do, make," → verb.

barâvari (#)

Fr.: estimation   

Statistics: The process by which sample data are used to indicate the value of an unknown quantity in a population.

Verbal noun of → estimate.


Fr.: estimateur   

Statistics: Any quantity calculated from the sample data which is used to give information about an unknown quantity in a population. For example, the sample mean is an estimator of the population mean.

Agent noun of → estimate.

kešandân (#)

Fr.: estuaire   

1) That part of the mouth or lower course of a river in which the river's current meets the sea's tide.
2) An arm or inlet of the sea at the lower end of a river (

From L. aestuarium "a tidal marsh, mud-beds covered by water at high tides; channel inland from the sea," from aestus "boiling (of the sea), tide, heat," from PIE *aidh- "to burn;" cognates: Gk aithein "to burn," Skt. inddhe "burst into flames," O.Irish aed "fire," O.H.G. eit "funeral pile."

Kešandân, literally "site of tides," from kešand, → tide, + -ân a suffix of place and time.

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